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IB2MAC 1988

8th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference

Dublin, Ireland

September 1988



CONTENTS

 

Organizing Committee:


Edward M. Opdebeeck (Chairman)


Domhnall Blair


Denis Buckley


Killian Halpin


Winston Napier


David Slattery


 

PROCEEDINGS

 

ISBN: 1-85166-265-0
Eds: John W. de Courcy:
FULL PROCEEDINGS BOOK: Volume 1 (0.15 GB)
FULL PROCEEDINGS BOOK: Volume 2 (0.17 GB)
FULL PROCEEDINGS BOOK: Volume 3 (0.18 GB)



Materials for Making Bricks and Blocks

 

[001]     Chitharanjan, N. and Kaliappan, T. P. (India):
Use of Industrial Wastes for Precast Wall Elements

[002]     Day, R. L. and Bergman, J. W. (Canada):
Fly Ash as a Substitute for Clay in Brick Manufacture

[003]     Di San Filippo, P. A. and Usai, G. (Italy):
New Raw Materials in Brickmaking

[004]     Mattone, R. (Italy):
Walls Made of Gypsum, Clay and Vegetal Fibre Masonry Blocks: Feasibility Study

[005]     Tinker, J. A. (UK):
Modelling the Thermal Conductivity of Lightweight Aggregate Masonry Materials Containing Moisture



Properties of Bricks and Blocks

 

[006]     Borchelt, J. G. and Vernon, W. T. (USA):
Masonry Unit Quality Control and the Mason Contractor

[007]     Brooks, J. J., Cabrera, J. G. and EI-Badri, M. (UK):
Properties of Clay IPFA Bricks

[008]     Ceragioli, G., Canavesio, G. and Ossola, F. (Italy):
Hypothesis for the Study of New Brick Products

[009]     Livingston, R. A. (USA):
Geochemical Methods Applied to the Reproduction of Handmolded Brick

[010]     Lomax, J. and Ford, R. W. (UK):
A Method for Assessing the Long Term Moisture Expansion Characteristics of Clay Bricks

[011]     Nieminen, P. and Romu, M. (Finland):
Porosity and Frost Resistance of Clay Bricks

[012]     Weck, T-U. (Finland):
Frost Resistance of Masonry Bricks



Mortars

 

[013]     Beningfield, N. (UK):
Air Entrainment of Mortar

[014]     Beningfield, N. (UK):
The Air Entrainment of Mortar-A Bibliography

[015]     Mehlmann, M. and Oppermann, B. (FRG):
The Role of Masonry Mortar and Rendering Mortar in Modern Masonry Construction

[016]     Nelson, R. L., Schmidt, S., Munro, C., Pistilli, M., Gates, R., Seyl, J. and Lauber, R. (USA):
Ready Mix Mortar in the United States

[017]     Schubert, P. (FRG):
The Influence of Mortar on the Strength of Masonry



The Mortar-Brick Interface

 

[018]     Groot, C. J. W. P. (The Netherlands):
Aspects of Mortar-Brick Bond

[019]     Jung, E. (FRG):
The Binding between Mortar and Brick

[020]     Lawrence, S. J. and Cao, H. T. (Australia):
Microstructure of the Interface between Brick and Mortar



Characteristics of Masonry

 

[021]     Binda, L., Fontana, A. and Frigerio, G. (Italy):
Mechanical Behaviour of Brick Masonries Derived from Unit and Mortar Characteristics

[022]     Douglas, J. G. (Republic of Ireland):
The Testing of Concrete Masonry Materials and the Development of the Irish Structural Masonry Design Code

[023]     Gairns, D. A. and Scrivener, J. C. (Australia):
The Effect of Masonry Unit Characteristics on Panel Lateral Capacity

[024]     Haavaldsen, T. (Norway):
Driving Rain Penetration in Brick Masonry

[025]     Orr, D. M. F. (Republic of Ireland):
Influence of Block Orientation on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Masonry Prisms



Bed Joints

 

[026]     Atkinson, R. H., Kingsley, G. R., Saeb, S., Amadei, B. and Sture, S. (USA):
A Laboratory and in Situ Study of the Shear Strength of Masonry Bed Joints

[027]     Goodwin, J. F. and Saunders, J. D. (UK):
Investigation of Bond between Calcium Silicate Bricks and Mortar

[028]     Matthys, J. H. (USA):
Flexural Bond Strengths of Portland Cement Lime and Masonry Cement Mortars

[029]     Stockl, S. and Hofmann, P. (FRG):
Tests on the Shear Bond Behaviour in the Bed-Joints of Masonry

[030]     Ben-Omran, H. and Glanville, J. (Canada):
Contribution of Steel Reinforcement in Masonry Columns under Sustained Load

[031]     Brooks, J. J. and Abdullah, C. S. (UK):
Composite Model Prediction of the Geometry Effect on Creep and Shrinkage of Clay Brickwork

[032]     Lenczner, D. (UK):
Creep in Brickwork Walls at High and Low Stress/Strength Ratios



Strength of Masonry-General Compression and Tension

 

[033]     Anstotz, W. and Kasten, D. (FRG):
Determining the Flexural Strength of Calcium Silicate Masonry

[034]     Brooks, J. J. and Amjad, M. A. (UK):
Elasticity and Strength of Clay Brickwork Test Units

[035]     Knutsson, H. H. (Denmark):
Carrying Capacity of Masonry

[036]     MacLeod, I. A. and Sreetharan, T. (UK):
Strength of Deep Brick Beams with and without Bed-Joint Reinforcement

[037]     Matty, S. A., Colville, J. and Wolde- Tinsae, A. M. (USA):
Load Transfer in Composite Masonry

[038]     Mo, T-B., Shi, G-B., Wang, Q-L. and Yi, W-Z. (People's Republic of China):
The Behaviour and Strength of Brick and Reinforced Concrete Composite Wall Beams with Door Opening

[039]     Naraine, K. and Sinha, S. (India):
Test of Brick Masonry Models under Cyclic Compressive Loading

[040]     Schubert, P. (FRG):
Compressive and Tensile Strength of Masonry

[041]     Schwartz, J. and Thurlimann, B. (Switzerland):
Masonry Walls under Centric or Eccentric Normal Force

[042]     Shi, C. X. and Wang, X-D. (People's Republic of China):
Analysis and Determination of Compressive Strength of Brickwork in Brick Masonry Walls



Concentrated Compressive Loading

 

[043]     Arora, S. K. (UK):
Review of BRE Research into Performance of Masonry Walls under Concentrated Load

[044]     Hendry, A. W. (UK):
Concentrated Loading on Brick Masonry with Precompression

[045]     Hosny, A. H., Soliman, M. I. and Hamdy, K. A. (Egypt):
Behaviour of Concrete Block Masonry Walls under Concentrated Loads

[046]     Page, A. W. (Australia) and Shrive, N. G. (Canada):
Failure of Hollow Masonry Subjected to Concentrated Loads



In-Plane Shear Loading

 

[047]     Baba, A., Senbu, O. and Arinaga, S. (Japan):
Shear Strength of Grouted Masopry Components Subjected to Diagonal Compressive Load

[048]     Chitharanjan, N., Sivaraman, G., Sundararajan, R. and Manoharan, P. D. (India):
Behaviour of Aerocrete Infilled Ribbed Wall Panels Subjected to Inplane Lateral Loading

[049]     Dawe, J. L. and Hatzinikolas, M. A. (Canada):
Behaviour of Masonry Infilled Panels in Steel Frames

[050]     Page, A. W. (Australia):
Influence of Material Properties on the Behaviour of Brick Masonry Shear Walls

[051]     Page, A. W. (Australia) and Huizer, A. (Canada):
Racking Tests on Reinforced and Prestressed Hollow Clay Masonry Walls

[052]     Riddington, J. R. (UK) and Ghazali, M. Z. (Malaysia):
Shear Strength of Masonry Walls

[053]     Zhang, S. (People's Republic of China):
Properties Test and Research on High Cantilever Shear Wall with Reinforced Concrete Small Block

[054]     Achyutha, H., Rahman, S. S. U. and Karisiddappa (India) :
Effect of Position of Openings on the Behaviour of Infilled Frames

[055]     Ewing, R. D., EI-Mustapha, A. M. and Kariotis, J. C. (USA) :
A Finite Element Computer Program for the Nonlinear Static Analysis of Reinforced Masonry Walls

[056]     Hart, G. C. (USA):
Limit State Strength Design Criteria for Slender and Shear Walls

[057]     Motta, F. (Italy) :
Hysteretic Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls

[058]     Rashwan, M.S., Goulter, I. C. and Glanville, J. I. (Canada) :
Modelling of Structural Relationships for the Optimum Design of High-Rise Masonry Shear Walls



Out-of-Plane (Lateral) Loading

 

[059]     AI-Hashimi, A. K. and Curtin, W. G. (UK):
Principal Tensile Strength and Vertical Shear Resistance of High-Strength Brickwork

[060]     Ambrose, R. J., Hulse, R. and Mohajery, S. (UK):
Cantilevered Prestressed Diaphragm Walling Subjected to Lateral Loading

[061]     Curtin, W. G. and Howard, J. (UK):
Lateral Loading Tests on Tall Post-tensioned Brick Diaphragm Walls

[062]     Dawe, J. L. and Seah C. K. (Canada):
Lateral Load Resistance of Masonry Panels in Flexible Steel Frames

[063]     Edgell, G. J. (UK):
The Use of Bed Joint Reinforcement to Enhance the Lateral Load Resistance of a Calcium Silicate Brickwork Wall

[064]     Ewing, R. D., Kariotis, J. C.., EI-Mustapha, A. M. (USA):
Correlation of Finite Element Analysis and Experiments on Reinforced Masonry Walls

[065]     Garrity, S. Wand Phipps, M. E. (UK):
An Experimental Study of the Influence of Vertical Prestress on the Horizontal Flexural Strength of Clay Brickwork

[066]     Hamid, A. A., Harris, H. G. and Chia, C. (USA):
Flexural Strength of Joint Reinforced Block Masonry Walls

[067]     Hobbs, B. and Daou, Y. (UK):
Post-tensioned T-Section Brickwork Retaining Walls

[068]     Hobbs, B. and Roman, H. (UK):
Shear Behaviour of Mortar Joints in Brickwork Subjected to Non-uniform Compressive Stress

[069]     Tawresey, J. G. (USA):
Reinforced Brick Masonry Curtain Wall Test and Design

[070]     Thurlimann, B. and Guggisberg, R. (Switzerland):
Failure Criterion for Laterally Loaded Masonry Walls: Experimental Investigations

[071]     Candy, C. C. E. (Australia):
The Energy Line Method for Masonry Panels under Lateral Loading

[072]     Fried, A., Anderson, C. and Smith, D. (UK):
Predicting the Transverse Lateral Strength of Masonry Walls

[073]     Lawrence, S. J. and Cao, H. T. (Australia):
Cracking of Non-Ioadbearing Masonry Walls under Lateral Forces

[074]     Mann, W. and Tonn, V. (FRG):
The Load-Bearing Behaviour of Biaxially Spanned Masonry Walls Subjected Simultaneously to Horizontal and Vertical Loading



Torsional Loading

 

[075]     Sriboonlue, W. and Matthys, J. H. (USA):
Cracking Behaviour of Reinforced Brick Masonry Beams under Torsional Loading



Seismic Loading

 

[076]     Bursi, O., Modena, C. (Italy) and Tomazevic, M. (Yugoslavia):
Experimental and Numerical Study of Seismic Behaviour of a Mixed RIC and Reinforced Masonry Three-Storeyed Building Structure

[077]     Kariotis, J. C.., EI-Mustapha, A M. and Ewing, R. D. (USA):
A Nonlinear Dynamic Lumped Parameter Model for Reinforced Masonry Structures

[078]     Kariotis, J. C.., EI-Mustapha, A M. and Ewing, R. D. (USA):
Dynamic Response of Building Systems with Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls

[079]     Khalaf, F. M. (UK):
An Investigation into the Capacity and Behaviour of Concrete Block Specimens Loaded Parallel to the Bed Face

[080]     Mann, W., Konig, G. and Otes, A. (FRG):
Tests of Masonry Walls Subjected to Seismic Forces

[081]     Moghaddam, H. A. and Dowling, P. J. (UK):
Earthquake Resistant Design of Brick Infilled Frames

[082]     Prawel, S. P., Reinhorn, A. M. and Qazi, S. A. (USA):
Upgrading the Seismic Resistance of Unreinforced Brick Masonry Using Ferrocement Coatings

[083]     Stylianidis, K. C. (Greece):
Cyclic Behaviour of Infilled R/C Frames

[084]     Tomazevic, M. and Lutman, M. (Yugoslavia):
Design of Reinforced Masonry Walls for Seismic Actions

[085]     Tomazevic, M. (Yugoslavia) and Modena, C. (Italy):
Seismic Behaviour of Mixed Reinforced Concrete, Reinforced Masonry Structural Systems

[086]     Anand, S. C. and Yalamanchili,K. K. (USA):
A Quasi-three Dimensional Failure Analysis of Composite Masonry Walls Subjected to Seismic Loads

[087]     Auciello, N. and De Rosa, M. A. (Italy):
Seismic Static Analysis of a Stone Arch Piers System

[088]     Gallegos, H. (Peru):
Ductility and Seismic Damage in Reinforced Masonry Buildings

[089]     Asthana, A. K. (India):
Seismic Behaviour and Design of Brick Masonry Buildings

[090]     Lapish, E. B. (New Zealand):
Aseismic Design of Brick Veneer Claddings



Thermal Loading

 

[091]     Anton, H. (FRG):
Thermal Conductivity of Brickwork

[092]     Kupke, C. (FRG):
The Influence of Colour and Constructions of Masonry in the Heat Transfer through External Walls

[093]     Shields, T. J., O'Connor, D. J., Silcock, G. W. H. and Donegan, H. A. (UK):
Thermal Bowing of a Model Brickwork Panel

[094]     Vandenberghe, D. G., Weston, J. H. and Law, A. G. (Canada):
An Industrial Heat Transfer Research and Development Strategy

[095]     Bonacina, C., Stevan, A. and Strada, M. (Italy):
Heat Conductance Determination of Hollow Lightweight Clay Blocks by the Finite Element Method

[096]     Nannei, E. and Tanda, G. (Italy):
An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in Buildings in Daily Intermittent Heating

[097]     Rahman, A. H. and Suter, G. T. (Canada):
A Finite Element Study of Selected Parameters Influencing Thermal Stresses in Intersecting Masonry Walls



Grouted Masonry

 

[098]     Hamid, A. A. (USA), Nawawy, O. A. (Qatar) and Farah, M. (USA):
Strengthening of Existing Hollow Block Masonry Walls

[099]     Scrivener, J. C. and Baker, L. R. (Australia) :
Factors Influencing Grouted Masonry Prism Compressive Strength

[100]     Senbu, O. and Baba, A. (Japan) :
Improving Durability of Reinforced Masonry Buildings by Better Quality Standards for Grout and Masonry Units

[101]     Young, J. M. and Brown, R. H. (USA):
Compressive Stress Distribution of Grouted Hollow Brick Masonry



Wall Ties

 

[102]     Kirtschig, K. and Metje, W. -R. (FRG) :
Investigation on the Long Term Behaviour of Masonry with Filled Cavities

[103]     Mannion, M. P. (Republic of Ireland) :
The Behaviour of Double-Triangle Wall Ties Under the Influence of Axial Load

[104]     Morton, J. and De Vekey, R. C. (UK) :
The Strength of Standard Double Triangle Wall Ties to BS 1243 in Wide Cavities

[105]     Morton, J., Narayanan, R. S. and Huband, N. J. (UK):
A Failure Survey of Freestanding Walls

[106]     Dodia, J. T., Anderson, C., Smith, D. N. and De Vekey, R. C. (UK):
Laterally Loaded Cavity Walls - A Parametric Study Based on Elastic Theory

[107]     Knutsson, H. H. (Denmark):
Wall Ties in Cavity Walls and Veneered Walls

[108]     Allen, D. (New Zealand):
The LaPalle Ductile Tie Connector



Reinforcement

 

[109]     Soric, Z. (Yugoslavia) and Tulin, L. G. (USA):
Length of Lap for Spliced Reinforcement in Masonry Structures



Frost Action

 

[110]     Gopfert, N. (FRG) :
The Effect of Freezing on the Strength Development of Newly Laid-Up Masonry

[111]     Yla-Mattila, R. (Finland) :
Frost Stress on and Frost Damage to Cavity Wall with Good Thermal Insulation and Frost Resistance Tests



Fire Resistance

 

[112]     Gnanakrishnan, N., Lawrence, S. J. and Lawther, R. (Australia):
Behaviour of Cavity Brick Walls Exposed to Fire

[113]     Dickey, W. L. (USA):
Engineered Fire Ratings for Brickwork



Masonry arches

 

[114]     Melbourne, C. and Walker, P. J. (UK) :
Load Tests to Collapse of Model Brickwork Masonry Arches

[115]     Franciosi, V. and Franciosi, C. (Italy):
The Cells Method in Masonry Arch Analysis

[116]     Harvey, W. J., Maxwell, J. W. S. and Smith F. W. (UK):
Arch Bridges are Economic

[117]     Hughes, T. G. (UK) and Vilnay, O. (Israel):
The Analysis of Masonry Arches

[118]     Jennings, A. (UK):
Assessment of Collapse Load for Masonry Arches

[119]     Vilnay, O. (UK):
The Critical Load Effect on the Failure of Masonry Arches



Ancillary Topics

 

[120]     Laska, W. (USA) :
Masonry Concept Home (4"" Brick Bearing Wall)

[121]     Raja, M. A. and Speare, P. R. S. (UK):
Tests on Composite Pile Capping Beams

[122]     Burland, J. B., Mansour, S. R. N. (UK) and Perry, S. H. (Republic of Ireland):
An Articulated Foundation for Masonry Structures Liable to Subsidence

[123]     Hobbs, B., Plank, R. J. and Westaway, R. (UK):
Use of Computer Assisted Learning in the Teaching of Structural Masonry Design - A Case Study



Flexural Behaviour

 

[124]     Bocca, P., Carpinteri, A. and Valente, S. (Italy) :
On the Applicability of Fracture Mechanics to Masonry

[125]     Grimm, C. T. (USA) :
Procedure for Standardizing Masonry Flexural Strengths



Time-Dependent Phenomena

 

[126]     Anand, S. C. and Rahman, A. M. (USA) :
Estimation of Temperature and Creep Stresses in Composite Masonry Walls

[127]     Andam, K. A. (Ghana) :
Elasto-viscoplastic Behaviour of Masonry Elements

[128]     La Tegola, A. and Ombres, L. (!tatvJ:
Influence of Viscous Phenomena on the Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry

[129]     Ryan, N. M. (Republic of Ireland) :
Movement in Masonry Cavity Walling

[130]     Wolde-Tinsae, A. M., Colville, J. and Stark, C. (USA):
Differential Movement in Composite Masonry Walls

[131]     Wu, R-F. and X/~ X-F. (People's Republic of China) :
The Cracking Growth and Elasto-plastic Analysis of Reinforced Brick-Walls



Assessment of Variability

 

[132]     Baba, A. and Senbu, O. (Japan):
A Method for Predicting Prism Strength and Young's Modulus of Grouted Masonry

[133]     Chen, H., Wang, Q-L. and Li, Z. (People's Republic of China):
Reliability Assessment for Masonry Structures

[134]     Kirtschig, K. and Anstotz, W. (FRG):
Testing the Compressive Strength of Brickwork

[135]     Kirtschig, K. and Meyer, J. (FRG):
On the Evaluation of Masonry Tests in Compression

[136]     Pfeifer, M (FRG):
The Load-Carrying Behaviour of the Bed Joints in Masonry Walling Subjected to Arbitrary Loading

[137]     Radogna, E. F. and Materazzi, A. L. (Italy):
A Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Construction Defects in Axially- Loaded Masonry Prismatic Members



Load Bearing Walls - General

 

[138]     Andreaus, U. (Italy):
A 3-D Finite Element Model for the Analysis of Masonry Structures

[139]     Bright, N. J. and Fudge, C. A. (UK):
Historical Development of Simple Rules for Masonry Design

[140]     Ganesan, T. P., Kalyanasundaram, P., Ambalavanan, R. and Ramamurthy, K. (India):
Structurally Efficient Hollow Concrete Blocks in Load Bearing Masonry

[141]     Ganesan, T. P. and Ramamurthy, K. (India):
A Simplified Finite Element Method for Design of Hollow Block Masonry Walls

[142]     Ganz, H. R. and Thurlimann, B. (Switzerland):
Design of Masonry Walls under Normal Force and Shear

[143]     McSweeney, F. (Republic of Ireland):
Blockwork Diaphragm Walls in Ireland

[144]     May, I. M., Bishop, N. W. M. and Ma, S. Y. A. (UK):
The Analysis and Design of Masonry Panels with Openings

[145]     Ryan, N. M. (Republic of Ireland):
The Use of Hollow Concrete Blockwork in Irish Housing

[146]     Schneider, K. -J. (FRG):
Structural Problems in the Design of Large Masonry Halls



Cladding

 

[147]     Borchelt, J. G. (USA):
History of Anchored Masonry Veneer



Reinforced masonry

 

[148]     Andreaus, U. and Di Paolo, A. (Italy):
3-D Analysis of Masonry Columns with Grouted Reinforcement Bars

[149]     Baba, A., Kamimura, K., Matsamura, A, Takahashi, Y., Watanabe, M. and Senbu, O. (Japan):
Guidelines to Construction Methods of Reinforced Masonry Buildings

[150]     Ding, D. (People's Republic of China):
Two New Points of View in Theory of Masonry Strength

[151]     Ohler, A. (FRG):
Structural Design of Reinforced Masonry Lintels

[152]     Shaw, G. (UK):
Modern Use of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Masonry

[153]     Shi, C. (People's Republic of China):
The Strength of Compressive Member of the Brick Masonry with Reinforced Network



Loading due to Accidental Damage

 

[154]     Kavanagh, J. A. (Republic of Ireland):
An Appraisal of Accidental Damage Design Procedures for Masonry Buildings

[155]     Lai, L. F. W. (UK):
A Review of the Literature Currently Available on the Stability of Masonry Buildings against Accidental Damage



Testing Techniques

 

[156]     Bocca, P. (Italy):
A Study of Microcracking in Masonry Construction: The Use of Pulse Velocity Measurements

[157]     Calvi G. M. (Italy):
Correlation between Ultrasonic and Load Tests on Old Masonry Specimens

[158]     De Vekey, R. C. (UK):
Non-destructive Test Methods for Masonry Structures

[159]     Garrecht, H., Kropp, J. and Hilsdorf, H. K. (FRG):
Analysis of Moisture Protection in Historic Buildings

[160]     Noland, J. L., Kingsley, G. R. and Atkinson, R. H. (USA):
Utilization of Nondestructive Techniques into the Evaluation of Masonry

[161]     Pistone, G. and Roccati, R. (Italy):
Testing of Large Undisturbed Samples of Old Masonry

[162]     Stockbridge, J. (USA):
Field and Laboratory Testing for Evaluating the Condition of Masonry Buildings

[163]     Wang, Q. and Wang, X. (People's Republic of China):
The Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Brick Masonry in Situ



Studies of Existing Buildings

 

[164]     McCloskey, F. G. (UK):
Failures in Traditionally Constructed Domestic Chimneys

[165]     Memon, A. and Memon, A. A. (Pakistan):
Brick Masonry Buildings in Hyderabad, Pakistan

[166]     Van Gemert, D. and Van Balen, K. (Belgium):
The Influence of Pointing Mortar on the Alteration of Brick and Masonry

[167]     Yan, Y., Loa, Y.-C. and Best R. (Australia):
Behaviour of Stanwell Park Viaduct, a Multispan Brick Masonry Arch System on Tall Piers

[168]     Angotti, F., Chiostrini, S. and Vignoli, A. (Italy):
Influence of Uncertainty of Geometric and Mechanical Characteristic on Ultimate Lateral Load of Existing Masonry Buildings

[169]     Manos, G. C. (Greece):
Earthquake Performance of Low Rise Masonry Houses Prototype Damage and Experimental Observations



Restoration and Refurbishment

 

[170]     Dyson, J. M. (UK):
Reconstruction of PRC Housing Using Brick & Block Masonry

[171]     Jagadish, R. and Bai, H. S. (India):
Restoration of an Eight Storeyed Apartment Building - A Case Study

[172]     Parducci, A. and Vaselli, R. (Italy):
Structural Rehabilitation of 'Palazzo Valadier' in Rome

[173]     Sharp, B. (UK):
Refurbishment of Retaining Walls Using Cellular Wall Construction

[174]     Tutt, J. N., Lawson, R. M., Haseltine, B. A. and Hodgkinson, H. R. (UK):
The Strength of Replacement Wall Ties