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IB2MAC 1991

9th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference

Berlin, Germany




Organizing Committee:

Dr.-lng . Dieter Kasten

Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie e.V., Hannover


Dipl.-lng. Gotz Krahl

Bundesverband der Deutschen Ziegelindustrie, Bonn


Dipl.-lng. Armin Neunast

Bundesverband Deutsche Beton- und Fertigteilindustrie einschl. Verband der Bims- und Betonindustrie, Bonn


Dr.-lng. Bernd Oppermann

Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie einschl . Hauptgemeinschaft der Deutschen Werkmortelindustrie, Koln


Dipl.-lng. Lothar Pesch

Bundesverband Deutsche Beton- und Fertigteilindustrie einschl . Verband der Bims- und Betonindustrie, Bonn


Dipl.-lng. Jorg Rustien

Zentralverband des Deutschen Baugewerbes, Bonn


Dipl.-lng. Reinhard Schramm

Bundesverband Porenbetonindustrie, Wiesbaden


Dr.-lng. Joachim Spitzner

Bundesverband Leichtbetonzuschlag-lndustrie (BLZ), Stuttgart





Eds: DGfM: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Mauerwerksbau eV.:

Manufacture of Masonry Units and Mortar


[001]     Breuckmann, K. and Pfiffi, H. (Germany):
Fresh Mortar - Raw Materials and Manufactoring

[002]     Jachmich, W. (Germany):
High Quality Standard of a Special Pumice Raw Material - Raw Material Processing-Gradings-Concequences

[003]     Maack, P. (Germany):
Semi - or Fully-Automatic Production of Masonry Walls

[004]     Mayer, J. and Glitza, H. (Germany):
Production of Foam Aerated Sicabrick Sand-Lime Lightweight Units and Material Properties

[005]     Nelskamp, H. (Germany):
The Use of Additional Substances and Additives in the Production of Calcium Silicate Units

[006]     Niemann, R. (Germany):
A New Pollution-Free Process for Pore-Forming of Lightweight, Vertical Coring Bricks or Blocks with Inorganic Perlite

[007]     Usai, G. (Italy):
Light Masonry Bricks Containing Fly-Ashes

Properties of Masonry Units and Mortar


[008]     Bohnisch, F. (Germany):
Influence of Moisture Content and the Shape of Specimen on the Compressive Strength of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Units

[009]     Chandrakeerthy, S. (Sri Lanka) and Hamid A.A . (USA):
Selection of Block Shapes for Different Applications in Masonry Construction

[010]     Groot, C.J.W . P. (The Netherlands):
First Minutes Water Transport from Mortar to Brick

[011]     Kasten, D. and Meyer, G. (Germany):
To the Moisture Content of Masonry Units

[012]     Mehlmann, M. and Oppermann, B. (Germany):
Properties of Factory Made Ma sonry Mortars - Findings from Quality Monitoring and Mortar Research

[013]     Metzemacher, H. (Germany):
Tension Test-Setup for Flat Prisms

[014]     Schubert, P. (Germany):
Properties of Masonry, Masonry Units, Masonry Mortar

[015]     Senbu, O., Baba, A. , Abe, M. , Sugiyama, M. and Matsushima, Y. (Japan):
Effect of Admix tures on Compactibility and Properties of Grout

[016]     Yoshino, T. and Baba, A. (Japan):
Frost Resistance of Masonry Units for Reinforced Buildings

Compressive Strength of Masonry


[017]     Baba, A., Senbu, O. , Matsushima, Y. , Arinaga, S. (Japan ):
Effect on Uniaxial Behaviour of Grouted Prisms Affected by Geometry of Masonry Units

[018]     Blaschke, R. (Germany):
Bearing Behaviour of AAC-Precision-Block Masonry

[019]     de Casa, G. and Giglio, G. (Italy):
Analysis of the Structural Behaviour of Walls Built by Tuff Blocks

[020]     Colville, J. and Wo l de-Tinsae, A.M. (USA):
Compressive Strength of Grouted Concrete Masonry

[021]     Daou, Y. and Hobbs, B. (UK):
Strength of Brickwork Loaded in Different Orientations

[022]     Drysdale, R.G. and Gazzola, E.A. (Canada):
Strength and Deformation Properties of a Grouted, Dry-Stacked, Interlocking, Concrete Block System

[023]     Faella, G., Manfredi, G. and Realfonzo R. (Italy):
Experimental Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Old Tuff Masonry Subjected to Axial Loading

[024]     Franke, L. , Deckelmann, G. and Goretzky, W. (Germany):
Influence of Material Spread on the Strength of Brickwork - Theoretical and Experimental Studies

[025]     Fried, A.N . (UK):
The Position of the Neutral Axis in Masonry Joints

[026]     Kirtschig, K. (Germany):
The Compressive Strength of Masonry: To Derive from the Mean or the Characteristic Strength of the Units?

[027]     Kirtschig, K. and Anstotz, W. (Germany):
Buckling Tests on Masonry

[028]     Klotz, P.-M. (Germany):
Modell Tests to the Stability of Masonry Walls with a Different Bearing of the Edges

[029]     Meyer, J . (Germany):
Influence of the Workmanship on the Compressive Strength of Masonry

[030]     Olivito, R.S. and Stumpo, P. (Italy):
An Experimental Analysis on the Behaviour of Brick Masonry Walls Subjected to Eccentric Load

[031]     Orr, D.M.F. and Mannion, M. P. (Ireland):
Shell Bedded Solid Concrete Block Masonry

[032]     Page, A.W., Simundic, G. and Xie, H. (Australia):
A Study of the Relationship Between Unit, Prism, and Wall Strength for Hollow Masonry Loaded in Compression

[033]     Vermeltfoort, A. Th. and van der Pluym, R. (The Netherlands):
Strength and Deformation Properties of Masonry to be Used in Computercalculations

[034]     Xingzhi, Ch . and Yue, L. (P.R . of China):
The Influence of the Precompressed Stress at Early Age on Brickwork

Mortar - Brick Bond


[035]     Abrams, D.P . and Xu, W. (USA):
Evaluation of In-Plane Shear Resistance of Cracked, Unreinforced Brick Walls

[036]     Angotti, F., Chiostrini, S. and Vignoli, A. (Italy):
An Experimental Research on the Behaviour of Stone Masonry Structures

[037]     Dialer, Chr . (USA):
Some Remarks on the Strength and Deformation Behaviour of Shear Stressed Masonry Panels under Static Monotonic Loading

[038]     Jedamzik, H. -W . and Becker, J. (Germany):
A Reasonable Exploitation of the Flexural Strength of Brickwork by Example of Linear Fixed Cavity Walls

[039]     McGinley, W.M. and Borchelt, J.G. (USA):
Influence of Materials on the Friction Developed at the Base of Clay Brick Walls

[040]     McNeilly, T.H. , Scrivener, J.C . , Zsembery, S. and Lawrence, S.J . (Australia):
Bond Strength and the Australian Masonry Code

[041]     Metzemacher, H. (Germany):
Flexural Strength of Masonry

[042]     Mullins, P.J. and O'Connor, C. (Australia):
Brick Shear Walls: An Experimental Investigation of the Brickwork to Concrete Interface

[043]     Zarri , F. (Italy):
Mechanical Behaviour of Single-Layer Brick Wall Panels Reinforced by Injections of Cement Mortar

Properties of Reinforced and Prestressed Masonry


[044]     Curtin, W.G . , Shaw, G. and Howard, J. (UK):
Structural Testing of a Post-Tensioned Brick Fin Wall

[045]     Fath, F. (Germany):
Effects of Glasfibre-Net as Reinforcement on Non-Load-bearing Partition Walls According to German Standard DIN 4103

[046]     Ghali, K.N., El Einin, A.W.A., Essawy, A.S. and George, F.N . F. (Egypt):
Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Beams

[047]     Haardt, P. and Hilsdorf, H.K . (Germany):
Tests on Eccentrically Loaded Reinforced Masonry Pillars

[048]     Hamid, A.A . (USA) and Ghanem, G.M. (Egypt):
Partially Reinforced Concrete Masonry

[049]     Harris, H.G., Hamid, A.A . , Assis, G.F. (USA):
Design Parameters for Flexural Strength Design of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Walls

[050]     Hosny, A.-H.H. , Abou-Elenain, A.-W., Essawy, A.S. and Higazy, E.M.M. (Egypt):
Behaviour of Reinforced Block Masonry Walls under Out-Of-Plane Bending

[051]     Isoishi, H., Kaminosono, T. and Teshigawara, M. (Japan):
Structural Characteristics of Reinforced Masonry with Casting Joint System

[052]     Mayrhofer, Chr . (Germany):
Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry for Laterally Loaded Wall Panels

[053]     Michelini, R., Olivencia, L., Maldonado N. , Forni, D. (Argentina):
Influence of Masonry in Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures Sujected to Horizontal Loads

[054]     Nishi, T. and Teshigawara, M. (Japan):
Correlation Study on Diagonal Crack Strength Between Diagonal Compression Test and Bending Shear Test of RM Walls

[055]     Pfeffermann, O. and Van de Loock, G. (Belgium):
20 Years Experience with Bed Joint Reinforced Masonry in Belgium and Europe

[056]     Schwartz, J., Reinle, E. and Thurlimann, B. (Switzerland):
New Orthogonal Reinforcement System for Masonry Walls

[057]     Sinha, B.P. and Pedreschi, R.F . (UK):
Can Prestressed Brickwork Beams be Used as na Alternative to Prestressed Concrete Beams?

[058]     Wiese, H. (Germany):
Early Examples of Reinforced Masonry

[059]     Xingzhi, Ch., Jianguo, L. and Jiang, X. (P.R. of China):
Shear Strength of Brick Masonry with Reinforced Networks in Bed Joints Subject to Combined Actions

Seismic Loads on Masonry


[060]     Adham, S. and Amrhein, J.E. (USA):
Dynamic and Static Testing of Tall Slender Reinforced Masonry Walls

[061]     Baggio, C. and Masiani, R. (Italy):
Dynamic Behaviour of Historical Masonry

[062]     Benli, G. and Houqin, Z. (China):
The Seismic Resistance Behaviour of Partially Reinforced Brick Walls

[063]     Calvi, G.M. and Magenes, G. (Ita1y):
Experimental Evaluation of Seismic Strength of Old Masonry Structures

[064]     Chuxian, S. and Jianguo, L. (China):
A Seismic Performance of Brick Masonry Building with RC Weak-Frame and Reinforced Masonry Wall

[065]     Modena, C., Braga , I . and Righetti, G. (ltaly):
Research on Structural Masonry for Modern Buildings: The Cooperation Between lndustry and University in ltaly

[066]     Nakaoka, A. and Nishi, T. (Japan):
Seismic Tests of Reinforced Masonry Walls and Beams with Thin Joint

[067]     Noland, J . L. (USA):
U.S. Coordinated Program for Masonry Building Research Progress Report

[068]     Pires, F., (Portugal):
Behaviour under Horizontal Actions of Reinforced Concrete Frames lnfilled with Brick Masonry

[069]     Seible, F., Hegemier, G., Igarashi , A. and Nagy, G. (USA):
Full-Scale Testing of Structural Masonry Systems under Simulated Seismic Loads

[070]     Tang, D. and Wang, L.S. (China):
Testing and Analysis of the Seismatic Behaviour of Volcanic Slag Concrete Block Masonry lnfilled R/C Frames

[071]     Tomazevic, M. and Weiss, P. (Yugoslavia):
Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Buildings: Reinforced Versus Unreinforced Masonry

[072]     Tubi, N., Cantoni, F., Fantucci, A. and Borsotti, R. (ltaly):
Mechanical Performance Degradation in Masonries Subjected to Short Cyclic Loads

[073]     Yamazaki, Y. (Japan):
Torsional Response Characteristics of Medium Rise Reinforced Masonry Buildings During Earthquakes

Test Methods for Masonry and its Components


[074]     Benli, G. , Wei, F. and Ning, W. H. (China):
The lnsitu Test Methods of Bonding Mortar

[075]     Bierwirth, H., Dialer, Ch., Stockl, S. and Kupfer, H. (Germany):
Development of a Test Equipment for Triaxial Loaded Mortar Specimens

[076]     Bottger, K.G ., Mehlmann, M. and Knofel, D. (Germany):
Influence of Anorganic Binders on Compressive Strength of Joint of Hardened Masonary Mortars

[077]     Calderoni, B. (Italy):
Lab Tests on Small Scale Brick Masonry Buildings

[078]     Cimitan, L., Rossi, P. P., Torraca, G. and Zaninetti, A. (Italy):
Experiments on the Disaggregation of Mortar and Concrete for Analytical Purposes

[079]     de Vekey, R.C . (UK):
In-Situ Tests for Masonry

[080]     Egermann, R. (Germany), Cook, D.A. (UK) and Anzani, A. (UK):
An Investigation into the Behaviour of Scale Model Brick Walls

[081]     Hobbs, B. (UK):
Development of a Construction Quality Control Procedure Using Ultrasonic Testing

[082]     Maydl, P. (Austria):
A Critical Review of Applicating the Flat-Jack Method to Brick Masonry

[083]     Morton, J., Kotsovos, M.D., Pavlovié, M.N. and Seraj, S.M. (UK):
An Initial Investigation of the Shape Factor Platen Effects when Testing Masonry Units to Determine the Material Compressive Strength

[084]     Page, A.W. and Kleeman, P.W. (Australia):
The Influence of Capping Material and Platen Restraint on the Failure of Hollow Masonry Units and Prisms

Design for Compressive Loads


[085]     Antonucci, R. and Nardinocchi, P. (Italy):
About the Buckling Load of a Masonry Column

[086]     Atkinson, R.H., Noland, J.L. and Hart, G.C. (USA):
Properties of Masonry Materials for Limit States Design

[087]     Bell, A.J. and Phipps, M.E. (UK):
The Strength of Masonry Columns of Geometric Cross Section

[088]     Beranek, W.J. and Hobbelman, G.J. (The Netherlands):
A Mechanical Model for Brittle Materials

[089]     Bright, N.J. and Fudge, C.A. (UK):
State-Of-The-Art for the Structural Design of Low-Rise Masonry Buildings in the UK

[090]     Chuxian, S. and Guiqiu, L. (China):
Analysis of the Load-Bearing Capacity for Compressive Members of Brick Masonry under Bi-Eccentric Loads

[091]     Chuxian, S. and Guiqiu, L. (China):
An Experimental Investigation of the Load-Bearing Capacity of Brick Masonry under Bi-Eccentric Compression

[092]     Colville, J. and Samarasinghe, W. (USA):
Finite Element Model for Brick Masonry

[093]     Drysdale, R.G. and Guo, P. (Canada):
Compressive Strength for Concrete Block Masonry Based on the Properties of Constituent Materials

[094]     Ganju, T.N . (Australia):
Analysis of Load Bearing Masonary Structures Using Computer Programs

[095]     Hart, G.C. and Noland, J.L. (USA):
Expected Value Limit State Design Criteria for Structural Masonry

[096]     Morton, J. (UK):
An Alternative Approach to Reduction Factors for the Design of Solid Masonry Walls

[097]     Qian, Y. L., Zhao, Z.M., Wu, M.S. and Jiang, O.H. (China):
Reliability Analysis for Unreinforced Masonry Structures

[098]     Sinha, S.N. (India):
Geometrical Model for Brick Masonry under Cyclic Biaxial Compressive Loading

Design for In-Plane and Out-of-Plane loading


[099]     Gunkler, E. (Germany):
The Effect of Reinforced Sprayed Plaster on the Increase of the Ultimate Horizontal Loadbearing Capacity of Masonry Walls

[100]     Kessler, H.-G. (Germany):
Limits of the Shear Carrying Capacity of Masonry

[101]     Mullins, P.J. and O'Connor, C. (Australia):
Brick Walls Spanning Vertically - A Theoretical Investigation of the Capacity to Resist Out-Of-Plane Loads

[102]     Roman, H.R. (Brazil) and Hobbs, B. (UK):
Theoretical Analysis of the Out-Of-Plane Shear Strength of Brickwork

[103]     Tawresey, J.G. (USA):
A Method for Determining Factors of Safety for Allowable Tensile Strengths in Masonry

Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Masonry


[104]     Donida, G., Piemontese, A.M. L. and Tamburri, M. (Italy):
Numerical Experimental Analysis of Prestressed Masonry Walls

[105]     Ganz, H.R. (Switzerland):
Post-Tensioned Masonry

[106]     Seible, F., Kingsley, G.R. and Kurkchubasche, A.G . (USA):
Prediction of Limit State Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry Systems with Nonlinear Analytical Models

Design for Earthquake loads


[107]     Abrams, D.P. and Paulson, Th . J . (USA):
Estimating Lateral Drift of Reinforced Masonry Structures

[108]     Braga, F. and Liberatore, D. (Italy):
Modeling of Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Buildings

[109]     Fusier, F. and Vignoli, A. (Italy):
Static Analysis of Masonry Buildings Subjected to Lateral Loads

[110]     Huo, Z. and Zhang, Y. (P.R. China):
The Stress and Strength of Masonry Structures under the Action of Seismic Side Force

[111]     Lenza, P. (Italy):
lhe Influence of Soil Deformability on Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Buildings

[112]     Lenza, P. (Italy):
Elastic Models for a Seismic Analysis of Masonry Vaults

[113]     Manos, G.C . , Mpoufidis, D. , Demosthenous, M. and Triamataki, M. (Greece):
Response of R.C . Framed Structures with Masonry Infills Subjected to Earthquake Motions

[114]     Michelini, R.J . and Maldonado, N.G . (Argentina):
Design and Construction in Seismic-Resistant Masonry Standards in Force in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina

[115]     Nisugi, S. , Fukushima, l. and Seki , Y. (Japan):
Advanced Flooring Form Work System for Reinforced Masonry

[116]     Page, A.W. (Australia):
The Behaviour of Unreinforced Masonry in the Newcastle Earthquake

[117]     Prawel, S.P. and Lee, H.H . (USA):
Ferrocement as a Surface Coating for the Seismic Upgrading of Old Unreinforced Brick Masonry Walls: Hysteretic Modeling

[118]     Vratsanou, V. (Germany):
An Analytical F.E . Model for the Simulation of the Behaviour of Brick Masonry Panels Under Monotonic and Cyclic Actions

Arching Reactions (Domes, Bridges)


[119]     Choo, B.S., Coutie, M.G. and Gong, N .G. (UK) :
The Effects of Cracks on the Behaviour of Masonry Arches

[120]     Franciosi, C. and De Rosa, M.A. (Italy):
Nonlinear Analysis of Stone Arches with Elastic Abutments

[121]     Melbourne, C. (UK) :
The Assessment of Masonry Arch Bridges

[122]     Menditto, G., Capozucca , R. and Traversari, M. (Italy):
Simulation and Calculus of Large Masonry Structures Domes and Arch Bridges

Double Wythe Walls


[123]     Anand, S.C., Yalamanchili, K. and Rahman, M.A. (USA):
Stiffness Effects on the Maximum Shear Stress in the Collar Joint of a Composite Masonry Wall

[124]     Dickey, W. L. (USA):
Alternate Brick Veneer Designs and Installations

[125]     Hatzinikolas, M.A. and Warwaruk, J. (Canada):
Connecting Cavity Walls

[126]     Lippe, J.C. van der (The Netherlands) and Glitza, H. (Germany):
Anchorage in Masonry

[127]     Rashwan, M. (Canada):
Analytical Modelling of Shear Connected Masonry Cavity Walls

[128]     Suter, G.T. and Drysdale, R.G. (Canada):
Key Construction Considerations for the Brick Veneer/Steel Stud System

Masonry without Mortar


[129]     Glitza, H. (Germany):
State of Art and Tendency of Development of Masonry without Mortar

[130]     Jansma, P.H. (The Netherlands):
Tasta-Quickbuildingsystem with Cellulair Concrete Blocks - Revolution or Elementary Way of Thinking?

[131]     Valsangkar, A .J., Dawe, J .L. and Gullison, L.H. (Canada):
Geogrid Anchored Wallstone Masonry Slope Protection System

[132]     Walker, P.J. and Dickens , J .G. (UK):
A Study of the Structural Behaviour of Dry-Stone Walls at Great Zimbabwe

Deformation and Durability of Masonry and its Components


[133]     Binda, L. , Anzani, A. and Gioda, G. (Italy):
An Analysis of the Time-Dependent Behaviour of Masonry Walls

[134]     Lenczner, D. and Harvey, R.J. (UK):
Creep and Loss of Prestress in Concrete Block Masonry

[135]     Klugt, L.J.A.R. van der (The Netherlands ):
Frost Damage to the Pointing and Laying Mortar of Clay Brick Masonry

[136]     Lu, J.P. and Lawrence, S.J. (Australia):
Cracking of Laterally Loaded Masonry Walls with Openings

[137]     Manns, W. and Zeus, K. (Germany):
About the Influence of the Type and Shape of Bricks as well as The Joint Upon the Cracking Strength of Brickwork

[138]     Mijnsbergen, J.P.G . , Hulst, J .G.A . van and Siemes, A.J.M. (The Netherlands):
Integral Durability Analysis for Brick -Work Masonry

[139]     Morabito, G., Marrone, P. and Stella, M. (Italy):
A System for the Reliability Evaluation of Load-Bearing Masonry External Walls

[140]     Prepens, M. (Germany):
The Influence of Coatings and Impregnations on the Frost and Weather Resistance of Facing Masonry of Calcium-Silicate Units

[141]     Waldum, A.M. (Norway):
Restoration of Masonry Facades. Renders and Final Coats in a Severe Climate

[142]     Wolde-Tinsae, A.M., Colville, J. and Najib, R.H. (USA):
Modulus of Elasticity of Clay Brick Masonry

Energy, Conservation, Sound and Moisture Insulation


[143]     Abdou, O.A . (USA):
The Dynamic Thermal Performance of Masonry Wall Assemblies of Similar Thermal Resistance

[144]     Abdou, O.A. and Hamid, A.A. (USA):
Thermal Performance Analysis of Pre-Insulated Concrete Masonry Walls

[145]     Al-Bosta, S. (Germany):
An Investigation of Thermal Deformation and Stress in Exterior Brick Masonry Walls When Using Transparent Insulation Systems

[146]     Hardmeier, S. (Switzerland):
A Simplified Construction to Eliminate Termal Bridges in the Footing Area of Exterior Walls

[147]     Konig, N. (Germany):
Good Thermal Properties by Raw Material Testing Applied to Lightweight Concrete Masonry

[148]     Schabel, H. (Germany):
Improvement of the Heat Insulation of Monolithic Masonry During the Last 15 Years Demonstrated on Lightweight Concrete Blocks

[149]     Shrive, N.G., Huizer, A. and Tilleman, D. (Canada):
Temperature Gradients Across Masonry Diaphragm Walls

[150]     Vik, B. and Hyrve, O. (Norway):
The Norwegian Insulated Block Concept

Sound Insulation


[151]     Di Cesare, G. , Farina, A. , Pompoli, R. and Raffellini, G. (Italy):
Sound Reduction Index of Typical Brick Walls Used by Italian Technologies of Building Construction: Experimental Results and Considerations

[152]     Gosele, K. (Germany):
Sound Insulation of House Separation Walls with Two Shells

Moisture Insulation


[153]     d'Ambrosio, F.R., Fato, I., Filippi, M. and Stella, M. (Italy):
Rising Dampness Phenomena. The Researches in Progress

[154]     Hines, T. and Mehta, M. (USA):
The Effect of Mortar Joint on the Permeance of Masonry Walls

Discussion of Relevant Themes in Standards


[155]     Becker, G, Bernard, R. and Jedamzik, H.-W. (Germany):
Consideration About None-Linear sigma-epsilon Functions to Eccentrical Loaded Masonry with Regard to DIN 1053, Part 1, 2.1990 Respectively EC 6

[156]     Buchholz, E. (Germany):
Comparison of Eurocode 6 and DIN 1053

[157]     Cantu, E. (Italy):
Compressive Strength of Masonry Wallettes Size and Shape Factor

[158]     Ehm, H. (Germany):
Requirements of Standardization of Masonry on the Basis of the Construction Products Directive

[159]     Hahn, Chr. (Germany):
Latest Knowledge on Fire Behaviour of Masonry

[160]     Kirtschig, K. (Germany):
Classification of Properties of Materials

[161]     Mann, W. (Germany):
Basics of Design of Masonry Walls Subjected to Vertical Loads and Buckling According to the Present Draft of Eurocode 6 and Comparison with Experimental Data

[162]     Mann, W. (Germany):
Tensile and Flexural Strength of Masonry - Theoretical Basis and Comparison with Test Results

[163]     Meyer, H.-G. (Germany):
Quality Assurance and Attestation of Conformity for Masonry - What is Required by the Common Market?

[164]     Meyer, U. and Schubert, P. (Germany):
Stress-Strain Relationship of Masonry

[165]     Reeh, H. (Germany):
Calculation of Masonry Walls, Comparison of Eurocode 6 and DIN 1053

[166]     Riddington, J.R., Gambo, A.H. and Edgell, G.J. (UK):
An Assessment of the Influence of Unit Aspect Ratio on Bond Shear Strength Values Given by the Proposed CEN Triplet Test

Directly Discussion of Standards


[167]     Arora, S.K. (UK):
Technical Assessment of Eurocode 6 by United Kingdom - A Comparison with BS 5628 Parts 1 & 2

[168]     Bouineau, A., (France):
European Standardization of Masonry Products Natural Stone Blocks

[169]     Haseltine, B.A. (UK):
CEN TC 250-SC 6 - The Structural Use of Masonry Eurocode 6 - The State in 1991

[170]     Kiehl, P. (Germany):
International and European Standardization in the Building Field - Experiences and Aims

[171]     Kirtschig, K. (Germany):
The Standardization of Masonry Structures by ISO - and Activities by CIB

[172]     Kjaer, E. (Denmark):
The Influence of Suction from Masonry Units Upon The Strength of the Hardened Masonry Mortar

[173]     Koch, G. (Austria):
State of Work in the Field of CEN-Standards Dealing with ""Thermal Insulation of Masonry""

[174]     Merlet, J. -D. (France):
European Standardization of Masonry Products: Mortar (Masonry Mortars - Rendering and Plastering Mortars)

[175]     Ohler, A. (Germany):
European Standardization of Masonry Products - Masonry Units -

[176]     Rademaker, P. D. (The Netherlands ):
European Standardization of Masonry Products Calcium Silicate

[177]     Roberts, J.J. (UK):
European Standardization of Masonry Products Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units

[178]     Torpey, N.V. (Ireland):
State-Of-The-Art Report for Task Group 3 "Aggregate Concrete Units" of CEN TC 125 Masonry Working Group I "Units"

Research on Units and Mortars


[179]     Barbi, L., Bati, S.B., Leggeri, B. and Ranocchiai, G. (Italy):
Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of the Bricks Used in Pienza in the XVI Century

[180]     Baronio, G. and Binda, L. (Italy):
Experimental Approach to a Procedure for the Investigation of Historic Mortars

[181]     Huesmann, M. and Knofel, D. (Germany):
Examination of Mortars of Historical Masonry at the Example of the Michaelskirche, Fulda

[182]     Knofel, D. and Schubert, P. (Germany):
Criterium of Assessments of Mortars for Historical Buildings

[183]     Middendorf, B. and Knofel, D. (Germany):
Chemical and Mineralogical Investigations of Mortars from Medieval Brick Buildings in Northern Germany

[184]     Trautmann, I. and Knofel, D. (Germany):
Development of a Slag Sand-Gypsum-Cement Mortar for Injection of Mulitple-Leaf Masonry Development-Part Two Influence on the Aggregates on the Mortarquality

Research on Masonry


[185]     Adriani, L., Fruzio, G. and Pasquino, M. (Italy):
Use of Rapid Assembly Components in Restoration and Renovation of Buildings in Seismic Areas

[186]     Berndt, E. and Schone, I. (Germany):
Load-Capacity Tests on Masonry of Saxon Sandstone to Asses Historic Constructions

[187]     Berra, M. , Binda, L., Anti, L. and Fatticcioni, A. (Italy):
Non Destructive Evaluation of the Effieacy of Masonry Strengthening by Grouting Techniques

[188]     Franke, L. and Schoppe, I. (Germany):
Damage to Historical Brick Buildings by Air Pollution

[189]     Pistone, G. and Roccati, R. (Italy):
Mechanical Characteristics of Masonry Rebuilt with Ancient Bricks and Fresh Mortars

[190]     Rocchi, P. and Bussi L. (Italy):
Critical-Historical Analysis and In Situ Tests of Masonry in Order to Determine the Characteristic Strengths and Group Behaviour: First Communication

Theoretical Considerations


[191]     Binda, L., Fontana, A. and Anti, L. (Italy):
Load Transfer in Multiple Leaf Masonry Walls

[192]     Mann, W., Betzler, M., Baumgartner, B. and Wolfel, E. (Germany):
Flaking-Off of Brickwork Lining in Railway Tunnels due to Chemical Metamorphosis Caused by Smoke from Steam Locomotives

Examples and Methods for Conservation and Restoration


[193]     Avramidou, N., Torricelli, C. and Esposito, M.A . (Italy):
Disciplinary Interrelation on the Field of Re-Design of Upgrading Masonry Buildings

[194]     Brusati, G. and Laner, F. (Italy):
Concept Design and Regulation in Restoration Projects

[195]     Cioni, P. (Italy):
Small Thickness Brick Vaults in Tuscany: Theirs Characteristics and Consolidation

[196]     Faoro, M. (Germany):
Improvement of Masonries with the Aid of Prestressed Bolts Comprising Non Corrosive Glass Fiber Composite (GFC) Material

[197]     Gavarini, C. (Italy):
Monumental Masonry Buildings in Seismic Zones Conservation, Restoration, Retrofitting

[198]     Heiman, J.L. (Australia):
Serviceability Problems in the Repair of Old Sandstone Buildings

[199]     Kunzel, H. (Germany):
Refitting of Traditional Frame Work Facades Under the Aspect of Rain Protection

[200]     Melbourne, C. (UK):
Conservation of Masonry Arch Bridges

[201]     Modena, C. , Rossi, P. P. and Bettio, C. (Italy):
Diagnosis and Strengthening of an Ancient Bell-Tower

[202]     Moerschbacher, B. (Germany):
A Device for Mechanical Compression of Pointing in Brick and Quarry Masonry

[203]     Nietzold, A. (Germany):
Limiting of Pressed Mortar and Prestressing without Compound

[204]     Page, J., Ives, D.A. and Ashurst, D. (UK):
Deterioration and Repair of Masonry Arch Bridges

[205]     Plauk, G. and Kretschmann, G. (Germany):
Strengthening of Existing Hollow Block Masonry by Grouting the Units

[206]     Prickartz, R. and Heuser, H. (Germany):
The Low-Water Injector Jet Proeess A New, Suitable Cleaning Process for Masonry

[207]     Schafer, R. (Germany):
Redevelopment of Damp Masonry by Redevelopment-Plasters (WTA)

[208]     Schulte, M. (Germany):
Protection of Buildings Made of Stone by Means of Face-Grouting

[209]     Wenzel, F. and Maus , H. (Germany):
Success and Failure of Structural Strengthening of Old Masonry by Grouting and Reinforcing

[210]     Werner, W. and Kauw, V. (Germany):
High-Pressure Water Jet System A New Process for Clearing Defective Mortar Joints in Historic Masonry

[211]     Wiese, H. (Germany):
Restoration of the Front of the Reconciliation-Church at Dresden-Striesen

Architectural Design of Masonry Constructions


[212]     Abdou, A.A . (Germany):
Limestone as a Ecological and Economical Building material to Create New Settlements in Egypt

[213]     Diehl, K.-L. (Uruguay):
Latin American Architecture in Brickwork as the Expression of an Independent Movement and an Attempt to Distinguish it from the Architecture of the Highly Industrialized Countries

[214]     Dieste, E. (Uruguay):
Reinforced Brick Structures

[215]     Pohl, W. (Germany):
The Influence of Historical Architectural Styles on the Use of Bricks

[216]     Queisser, A. (Switzerland):
Possibilities for The Design of External Walls Using Coloured Cement Bricks

[217]     Spitzner, J. (Germany):
Fair-Faced Masonry of Lightweight Concrete Blocks

[218]     Walch, F. (Germany):
The Wall Material as a Design Component in the Architectural Concept

Masonry Design and Construction Ecconomics


[219]     Fischer, F. (Germany):
Masonry Constructions in Developing Countries

[220]     Giovinazzo, M. and Buonsanti, M. (Italy):
System of Prefabricated Components of Stainless Steel Reinforced Brick Panels Obtained by Industrialized Processing of Traditionally Manufactured Bricks

[221]     Hergott, D.H. (Germany):
Durability and Economy of Single Wythe External Walls Made of KLB-Masonry

[222]     Jung, E. (Germany):
Costs of Reinforced Brickwork and Further economical Perspectives

[223]     Plauk, G. and Kretschmann, G. (Germany):
Safe and Economic Construction of Buildings with a Newly Developed Type of Solid Block Masonry

[224]     Stella, M. (Italy):
Traditional Apulian Masonry and Mortars: Use and Experimentation

[225]     Weck, T.-U. (Finland):
Research in Year 2000