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IB2MAC 1994

10th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference

Calgary, Canada

05-07 July 1994



Organizing Committee:

Art Huizer

Emlyn Jessop

Nigel Shrive

Gary Sturgeon




Eds: N. G. Shrive and A. Huizer:

Numerical Analysis


[001]     W.J. Beranek and G.J. Hobbelman (The Netherlands):
Modelling of Masonry as an Assemblage of Spheres on Various Scales

[002]     Paulo B. Lourenço and Jan G. Rots (The Netherlands):
Understanding the Behaviour of Shear Walls: A Numerical Review

[003]     J.S. Lee, G.N. Pande, J. Middleton and B. Kralj (U.K.):
Analysis of Tensile Strength of Masonry

[004]     M.C. Bouzeghoub and J.R. Riddington (U.K.):
2-D and 3-D FE Analyses of Masonry Panels: A comparative Study

[005]     Harrie J. Vekemans (The Netherlands):
Numerical Analysis of Masonry T-Walls

[006]     L. Binda, A. Fontana, and G. Mirabella (Italy):
Mechanical Behaviour and Stress Distribution in Multiple-Leaf Stone Walls

[007]     Asok K. Ghosh, Amde M. Amde and James Colville (U.S.A.):
Finite Element Modeling of Unreinforced Masonry

[008]     Ugo Carputi and Gennaro De Martino (Italy):
Local Behaviour of Yellow Tuff Masonry: A Comparison of Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation Results

[009]     Werner Seim (Germany):
Isotropic or Anisotropic? Simulation of In-Plane-Loaded Masonry Structures Close to Reality

[010]     Myriam Olivier and Ali Mesbah (France):
Raw Earth Block Masonry: Experimentation and Calculation of a Nubian Cupola

[011]     Manicka Dhanasekar and Mlinder Kumar (Australia):
Parametric studies on the Strength and Stiffness of Reinforced Clay Block Masonry

[012]     G.N. Pande, J. Middleton, J.S. Lee and B. Kralj (U.K.):
Numerical Simulation of Cracking and Collapse of Masonry Panels Subject to Lateral Loading

[013]     E.Y. Sayed-Ahmed and N.G. Shrive (Canada):
Numerical Modelling of Face-Shell Bedded Hollow Masonry

[014]     Giuseppe Pistone (Italy):
Computer Modelling of the Behaviour of S. Giovanni Church in Farigliano

[015]     Massimo Cuomo (Italy):
Estimate of the Mechanical Properties of Stone Masonry Using Homogenization Techniques

Design Methods


[016]     Olof Sjostrand (Sweden):
Generalized Design Method of Laterally Loaded Masonry Walls

[017]     S.K. Arora (U.K.):
Design Based on Loadsharing within Masonry Structures: A Review of Experimental Data

[018]     David T. Biggs (U.S.A.):
Design and Construction Techniques for Brick Beams

[019]     Helmut Reeh (Gerrnany):
Design of Masonry by Simple Rules

[020]     Ayrnan A. Maksoud and Robert G. Drysdale (Canada):
Simplified Method for Design of Slender Masonry Walls

Seismic and Dynamic Loading


[021]     Arturo Tena-Colunga and Daniel P. Abrams (Mexico/U.S.A.):
Structural Evaluation of Low-rise Masonry Buildings with Flexible Diaphragms Subjected to Earthquakes

[022]     Roger H. Shelton and Andrew B. King (New Zealand):
Seismic Performance of Masonry Veneers on Timber Frame Backing

[023]     Bruno Calderoni, Aurelio Ghersi and Pietro Lenza (Italy):
Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Buildings

[024]     Giuseppe Faella, Gaetano Manfredi and Roberto Realfonzo (Italy):
Cyclic Shear Behaviour of Tuff Masonry Walls Strengthened by Grout Injections and Reinforcement

[025]     Songbo Li and Anton N. Fried (U.K . ):
Analysis for Seismic Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry Walls

[026]     Antonino Giuffre, Tommaso Pagnoni and Cesare Tocci (Italy):
In-Plane Seismic Behaviour of Historical Masonry Walls

[027]     Svetlana Nikolic-Brzev (Canada):
An Innovative Seismic Protection Scheme for Masonry Buildings

[028]     Miha Tomazevic, Polana Weiss and Marjana Lutman (Slovenia):
The Effect of Tying the Walls on the Seismic Behaviour of Historic stone and Brick Masonry Houses

[029]     Miha Tomazevic and Marjana Lutman (Slovenia):
Simulation of Seismic Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry Walls by Laboratory Testing

[030]     Felicita Pires and E.C. Carvalho (Portugal):
Cyclic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled with Brick Masonry Walls

[031]     Yan Zhuge, David Thambiratnam and John Corderoy (Australia):
Experimental Testing of Masonry Walls under In-Plane Cyclic Loads

[032]     M.A. Amjad (Saudi Arabia):
Masonry Wall Behaviour under Scud Missile Attacks in Riyadh

[033]     Brian Hobbs, Michael Ting and Matthew Gilbert (U.K.):
An Analytical Approach for Walls Subjected to Static and Dynamic Out-of-Plane Point Loads



[034]     Clive Melbourne, Matthew Gilbert and Mark Wagstaff (U.K.):
The Behaviour of Single and Multi-span Brickwork Arch Bridges

[035]     Thomas E. Boothby, Scott E. Nelson and Matthew J. Scolforo (U.S.A.):
A Visual Classification System for Masonry Arch Failures

[036]     Clive Melbourne and Matthew Gilbert (U.K.):
The Application of Limit Analysis Techniques to Masonry Arch Bridges

Wall Systems


[037]     E.F.P. Burnett, J.F. Straube and P. Sloof (Canada):
The Relative Merits of Zero-cavity Brick Veneer Walls

[038]     Peter Mullins and Colin O'Connor (Australia):
A Reinforcement System for Cavity Brickwork

[039]     Shan Gowrishankar and Vernon V. Neis (Canada):
Differential Displacements and Loads between wythes in Composite Masonry Walls with stiff Ties

[040]     Stephen W. Garrity (U.K.):
The Shellstone System: A New Form of Dry-Stacked Masonry Construction

[041]     Salim AI Bosta (Gerrnany):
Interaction of Masonry Walls and Concrete Slabs Due to Loads and Restraints

Retaining Walls and Foundations


[042]     B.P. Sinha (U.K.):
Comparative Performance of Reinforced and Prestressed Brickwork Pocket-Type Retaining Walls in shear

[043]     Stephen W. Garrity and Richard D. Nicholl (U.K.):
Reinforced and Prestressed Masonry Earth Retaining Walls: A Cost Study

[044]     K. Fisher, B.A. Haseltine and P. Watt (U.K.):
Structural Testing of Brick Pocket-Type Retaining Walls

[045]     R. Randeniya, A.J. Valsangkar, and J.L. Dawe (Canada):
Performance of a Geogrid Reinforced Wallstone Retaining Wall System

[046]     A.W. Page, P.W. Kleeman and l. Bryant (Australia):
Serviceability Analysis of Wall-Beam Footing systems

Investigation, Restoration and Retrofitting


[047]     Stephen W. Garrity (U.K.):
Retro-Reinforcement of Existing Masonry Structures

[048]     Khaled Nahlawi (U.S.A.):
Retrofitting by Means of Post Tensioning

[049]     Ahmad A. Hamid, Abdel Dayem S. Mahmoud and Sherif Abo El Magd (United Arab Emirates/U.S.A.):
Strengthening and Repair of Unreinforced Masonry Structures: State-of-the-Art

[050]     Gouda Ghanem, Mohamed A. Zied and Arnr E. Salama (Egypt):
Repair and Strengthening of Masonry Assemblages using Fiber Glass

[051]     G. Michele Calvi and Guido Magenes (ltaly):
Experimental Results on Unreinforced Masonry Shear Walls Damaged and Repaired

[052]     Fulvia Zeuli (Italy):
The Restoration of Santa Maria Della Sanita' in Naples and the Reconstruction of the Vaults and Columns

[053]     Alf M. Waldum (Norway):
Mortars for Restoration of Historical Masonry Buildings in Severe Climate

[054]     L. Binda, C. Modena, G. Baronio and A. Gelmi (Italy):
Experimental Qualification of Injection Admixtures Used for Repair and Strengthening of Stone Masonry Walls

[055]     Michael P. Schuller, Richard H. Atkinson and Jeffrey T. Borgsmiller (U.S.A.):
Injection Grouting for Repair and Retrofit of Unreinforced Masonry

[056]     David T. Biggs (U.S.A.):
Identifying Problems with Walls using Header Block

[057]     Timothy G. Hughes and Robyn Pritchard (U.K.):
An Investigation of the significance of Flatjack Flexibility in the Determination of In-situ stresses

Flexural Behaviour


[058]     Rob van der Pluijm (The Netherlands):
Influence of the Angle between Bending Axis and Bed Joint on the Flexural Strength of Masonry

[059]     Malcolm E. Phipps, Adrian J. Bell and Li Yang (U.K. ):
Slender Brickwork Columns

[060]     Roberto Rodriguez, Ahmad A. Hamid and Jesus Larralde (U.S.A.):
Flexural Behaviour of Post-Tensioned Masonry Walls Subjected to Out-of-Plane Loads: Preliminary Results

[061]     Ravi K. Devalapura, Gary L. Krause and Maher K. Tadros (U.S.A.):
Experimental Investigation on the Flexural Behaviour of Prestressed Masonry

[062]     Vernon V. Neis, Shan Gowrishankar and Khaled M. Sakr (Canada):
Flexural Deformation Curves for Masonry Walls Generated by Interactive Spreadsheet Macros

[063]     Khaled M. Sakr and Vernon V. Neis (Canada):
Full Scale Testing of Masonry cavity Walls Subjected to Lateral Loading

[064]     Kelvin J. Graham and Adrian W. Page (Australia):
An Experimental Study of the Flexural Behaviour of Post-Tensioned Hollow clay Masonry

[065]     B.P. Sinha and Chee Liang Ng (U.K.):
Behaviour of Brickwork Panels under Lateral Pressure

[066]     Roger D. Flanagan and Richard M. Bennett (U.S.A.):
Behaviour of Damaged Infill Panels

[067]     Darren R. Hartman and Max L. Porter (U.S.A.):
Out-of-Plane Flexural Bending of Masonry Infilled Walls

Fracture and Cracking of Masonry


[068]     O. Pfeffermann, P. Timperman and B.A. Haseltine (Belgium/U.K.):
Use of Murfor Reinforced Masonry to Prevent cracking Problems: 25 Years Experience

[069]     Xiao-Song Xiao and Da-Hua Jiang (China):
The Effect of Microcracking in Brick Masonry on its Mechanical Behaviour

[070]     Filippo Romano, Salvatore Ganduscio and Gaetano Zingone (Italy):
Damage Mechanic in the Analysis of Slender Masonry Walls

[071]     Jan G. Rots, Wim G.J. Berkers and Hans A.J.G. van den Heuvel (The Netherlands):
Towards Fracture Mechanics Based Design Rules for Movement-Joint Spacing

[072]     Udo Meyer and Peter Schiessl (Germany):
Crack-Width Control with Bed-Joint Reinforcement

[073]     K.S. Ibrahim and G.T. Suter (Canada):
Smeared Crack Model for Reinforced Concrete Masonry Shear Wall Analysis

[074]     Xiao-Song Xiao and Da-Hua Jiang (China):
Fractal Characterization of Fracture Surface in Brick Masonry

Creep and Moisture Movement


[075]     J.J. Brooks and P.R. Bingel (U.K.):
Creep of Masonry under Varying Stress

[076]     Arnold W. Hendry (U.K.):
Vertical Movements in Stone Masonry Facing Walls

[077]     Heinrich Metzemacher (Germany):
Determination of the Tensile Relaxation of Masonry

[078]     Peter Schubert (Germany):
Test Methods for the Determination of Creep and Shrinkage in Masonry

[079]     Subhash C. Anand and Naresh Bhatia (U.S.A.):
A Finite Element Model to Estimate Creep in Masonry

[080]     L. PeI (The NetherIands):
Moisture Transport through Masonry

[081]     Günter Meyer and Birgit Mankowski (Germany):
Influence of the Pore Radius Distribution on the Absorptivity of Calcium Silicate Units

[082]     Vincenzo Eusebi, Romualdo Montagna, Marco Pauri and Alessandro Stazi (ItaIy):
Recovery of Rising-Damp Damaged Masonry: Experimental Comparison between ""Slow Diffusion"" and ""Under Pressure"" Procedures for waterproofing Agents

Architecture and Management


[083]     Gerhard Koch (Austria):
Eco-Balances of Clay Brick Masonry

[084]     Richard A. EbeItoft and T. Lewis Thompson (U.S.A.):
Masonry Cool Towers: contemporary Interpretation and Application of an Ancient Solution

[085]     Heinrich Metzemacher (Germany):
Single-Leaf Brick Masonry: Development of a Traditional Building Material into an Efficient Modern Wall Design Component

[086]     Linda Brock (Canada ):
The contemporary Brick Wall

[087]     Josep M. AdeII-ArgiIés (Spain):
Architecture and Research with Reinforced Masonry

[088]     Ilaria Garofolo (ItaIy ):
A Brickwork ""Skin"": Form, Function, Meanings in the Architectural Design

[089]     Josep M. AdeII-ArgiIés (Spain):
Nineteenth century Brick Architecture: Rationality and Modernity

Flexural Bond Strength


[090]     P. Schubert (Germany):
Tensile and Flexural Strength of Masonry: Influences, Test Methods, Test Results

[091]     S.J. Lawrence and A. W. Page (AustraIia):
Bond studies in Masonry

[092]     W. Mark McGinIey (U.S.A.):
Bond Wrench Testing: An Evaluation of Laboratory Testing Procedures

[093]     S . J. Lawrence and L. So (Australia):
The Influence of Some Factors on the Tensile Bond Strength of Masonry

[094]     A.N. Fried and Songbo Li (U.K.):
The Influence of Unit Moisture Content on Masonry Flexural Strength

[095]     C.J.W.P. Groot, Th.H. de Keijser and N.M . van der Pers (The Netherlands):
Mortar-Brick Bond Problems Studied by Means of X-Ray Diffraction

[096]     Erik van Geel and Rob van der Pluijm (The Netherlands):
The Variability of Tensile and Flexural Bond Strength

Wall Ties


[097]     James Q. Burdette, Ahmad A. Hamid and Jesus Larralde (U.S.A.):
Development of a Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wall Tie for Masonry Construction

[098]     E.F.P. Burnett, M.A. Postma and C. Wegner (Canada):
Remedial or Supplementary Tie Systems for BV/SS Wall Systems

[099]     Lawrie R. Baker (Australia):
Performance Standards for Wall Ties

[100]     E.A. Gazzola (Canada):
Masonry Wall Tie Design: A Review of International Standards

Shear Behaviour


[101]     Da-Hua Jiang and Xiao-Song Xiao (China):
A New Masonry Shear Test Method Determining Masonry Shear Strength

[102]     Songbo Li, A.N. Fried and J.J. Roberts (U.K . ):
Analysis of Shear Strength for Reinforced Concrete Blockwork Beams

[103]     Peter Mullins and Colin O'Connor (Australia):
The Capacity of Unreinforced Unbounded Brick Shear Walls

[104]     Magdy M. Khattab and Robert G. Drysdale (Canada):
Nonlinear Modelling of the Shear Response of Grouted and Reinforced Concrete Masonry

[105]     W. Samarasinghe and S.J. Lawrence (Australia):
Behaviour of Masonry under Combined Torsion and Compression

[106]     A. Dukuze, J.L. Dawe and C.K. Seah (Canada):
Behaviour of Unreinforced Masonry Panels Infilling RC Frames: preliminary Results

Thermal Behaviour


[107]     Walter L. Dickey (U.S.A.):
Fire Endurance of Brick Veneer

[108]     Christiane Hahn (Germany):
Experience of Fire Behaviour of Masonry

[109]     M. Dhanasekar, V. Chandrasekaran and S.J. Grubits (Australia):
A Numerical Model for Thermal Bowing of Masonry Walls

[110]     Tang G. Lee (Canada):
Vertical Ice Dam on Single Wythe Masonry Walls



[111]     Noberto Tubi, Francesco Cantoni and Adriano Fantucci (Italy):
Some Experimental Comparisons of Mechanical Resistance between Cellular Clay Blocks and Little Walls Built with the Same Blocks

[112]     K.S. Ibrahim and G.T. Suter (Canada):
Shear Behaviour of Flashing MateriaIs in Brick-Mortar Joints

[113]     Robert L. Day and Arie Huizer (Canada):
A Masonry Unit Manufactured from Fly Ash and Waste Glass

[114]     Norbert Konig (Germany):
Performance of Masonry units with Air Ducts and Translucent Plastering as Hybrid Heating system

[115]     Caijun Shi and Robert L. Day (Canada):
Lightweight Masonry Units Made with Lime and Natural Pozzolan

[116]     Gotz Krahl and Giovanni Peirs (Germany/Belgium):
Dimensional Tolerances for clay Masonry units

[117]     Philippe Gleize and Humberto R. Roman (Brazil):
The Use of Fly Ash and Furnace-Bottom Ash to Produce Brick

[118]     G. De Casa, G. Giglio and G. Sappa (Italy):
Comparison Between the Forecasts of a Numerical Model and the Results of a Physical Model in Roman Tuff Brick Walls

[119]     Giulia Baronio and Luigia Binda (Italy):
Study of the Pozzolanicity of Some Bricks and Clays

[120]     Dieter Hums, Klaus F. Lippe and Jan Volec (Germany):
The Use of Flyash in the Manufacture of Aerated Autoclaved Concrete

[121]     N. Ghafoori and R.P. Mathis (U.S.A.):
Behaviour of Concrete Paving Blocks under ExternaI Sulfate Attack

[122]     U. Meyer (Germany):
Reinforced Vertically-Perforated Clay-Brick Masonry

[123]     Norman J. Bright (U.K.):
Developments in Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry

[124]     David M.F. Orr (Ireland):
Strength variations in Solid Concrete Masonry Blocks Manufactured using Multi-Block Making Machines

Testing Methods


[125]     S. Briccoli Batti and G. Ranocchiai (Italy):
A criticaI Review of Experimental Techniques for Brick Material

[126]     W.A . Ferguson and J. Skandamoorthy (U.K.):
The Screw Pull-Out Test for the In-situ Measurement of the strength of Masonry MateriaIs

[127]     M. Arduini, A. Di Leo, A. Di Tommaso and G. Pascale (Italy):
Experimental Methods for On-Site Evaluation of the Mechanical properties of Masonry

[128]     Tor-Ulf Weck (Finland):
Fast Method for Determining the Frost Resistance of Clay Bricks

[129]     Giorgio Frunzio, Camilla D'Onofrio and Michela Monaco (Italy):
Influence of Test Conditions on Mechanical properties of Yellow Tuff Specimens

[130]     Gilbert C. Robinson and J. Gregg Borchelt (U.S.A.):
Factors Influencing clay Brick Durability

[131]     W. Mann and M. Betzler (Germany):
Investigations on the Effect of Different Forms of Test Samples to Test the Compressive Strength of Masonry

[132]     Natale Gucci and Riccardo Barsotti (Italy):
Determination In situ of Mortar Load capacity by a Drilling Technique

[133]     Gouda Ghanem, Shreif Abu-El-Magd and Hassan Hosny (Egypt):
Suggested Modifications to the Diagonal Tension Test Calculation for Masonry Assemblages



[134]     Peter Schubert and Gisbert Hoffmann (Gerrnany):
Compressive strength of Mortar in Masonry: Significance, Influences, Test Methods, Requirements

[135]     Bruce A. Wideman (U.S.A.):
Mortar Cement Development in the United States

[136]     J.T. Conway and J.M. Melander (U.S.A.):
Factors Affecting Workability and Board Life of Conventional Masonry Mortars

[137]     K.G. Bottger, M. Mehlmann and D. Knofel (Germany):
Influence of Additives on compressive strength of Joint of Hardened Masonry Mortars

[138]     R.C. de Vekey, G.J. Edgell, G.D. Regan and C. Southcombe (U.K.):
The Influence of Sand Constituents on the Bond of Mortar and Lateral Performance of Masonry: (i) Test Methodology and Results

[139]     P. Schubert (Germany):
Masonry with Medium-Bed Mortar

[140]     S. Stockl, H. Bierwirth and H. Kupfer (Germany):
The Influence of Test Method on the Results of compression Tests on Mortar

[141]     Dieter Kastan and Wolfgang Eden (Germany):
The Influence of the compressive strength of the Mortar on the compressive Strength of Masonry

Compressive Behaviour


[142]     Philip J. Evans (Australia):
Compressive strength of Masonry prisms Made with Air Entrained Mortar

[143]     Christoph Müller and Udo Meyer (Germany):
Influence of unit and Mortar properties on the Compressive strength of Mortar in vertically Perforated clay-Brick Masonry

[144]     A.Th. Vermeltfoort (The Netherlands):
Compression properties of Masonry and its Components

[145]     Nicola Totaro (Italy):
A Hybrid Elastic Theory for Evaluation of compressive strength of Brick Masonry

[146]     Gisbert Hoffmann and Peter Schubert (Germany):
Compressive strength of Masonry Parallel to the Bed Joints



[147]     Christine Hahn (Germany):
Proposed CEN Standard in comparison with ISO for the Assessment of the Fire Behaviour of Masonry

[148]     B.A. Haseltine, R.C. de Vekey and J.N. Tutt (U.K.):
The Influence of Sand Constituents on the Bond of Mortar and Lateral Performance of Masonry: (ii) comparison of Wall Results with Design to Yield Line Theory and BS 5628

[149]     John R. Riddington and Paul Jukes (U.K.):
A Comparison between Panel, Joint and Code Shear strength

[150]     N.G. Shrive (Canada):
Proportion, Property and Performance: The New CSA Mortar Standard

[151]     W. Mann and H. Fasser (Germany):
The Buckling Effect of Masonry Walls simply Supported on 3 or 4 Edges considering the Tensile strength of Masonry

[152]     S.J. Lawrence and A.W. Page (Australia):
The Australian Masonry Code

[153]     Claudio Modena (Italy):
Coordination and Transfer into Practice of Research on Masonry: The Role of CIB Committee W23 Wall Structures

[154]     Gouda Ghanem and Amr E. Salama (Egypt):
An overview on the Draft of the Egyptian Code for Masonry and a proposed Research to Cover the Shortcomings

Historic Masonry


[155]     M. Schuller, M. Berra, A. Fatticioni, R. Atkinson and L. Binda (U.S.A./ltaly):
Use of Tomography for Diagnosis and control of Masonry Repairs

[156]     Martin Kahle, Walter Fichtner and Claudia Neuwald-Burg (Germany):
Investigation of Masonry in a Medieval Castle Ruin

[157]     Marco G. Pauri, Alessandro Stazi, Francesco Mastrosanti and Marco D'Orazio (Italy):
The Decay of Ancient Building Masonry: A Case Study

[158]     Bernhard W. Middendorf and Dietbert Knofel (Germany ):
Water Resistant Gypsum-Lime Mortars for the Restoration of Historic Brick Buildings

[159]     Biancaneve Codacci-Pisanelli (Italy):
Triumphant Hercules Temple in Tivoli, to Illustrate How to Investigate on Brickwork Conditions

[160]     Antonella Guida (Italy):
For cataloguing and studying the Abacus of the Historical Building MateriaIs Used in Civil Building Industry

[161]     Ralph Egermann and Claudia Neuwald-Burg (Gerrnany):
Assessment of the Load Bearing capacity of Historic Multiple Leaf Masonry Walls

[162]     Piero Contini and Pier Giorgio Debernardi (Italy):
Experimental Investigation on Fill-Layer Historical Masonry Consolidated through Innovative Technologies