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IB2MAC 1997

11th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference

Shanghai, People's Republic of China

14-16 October 1997



Organizing Committee:

Yiliang Qian

(Chairperson), Professor, Tongji University


Bai Yuan Gewa

(Vice Chairperson), Vice General Secretary, China Association for Engineering Construction Standardization


Fu Jin

(Vice Chairperson), Director, Shanghai Developing New Type Wall Materials Office


Xilin Lu

(Vice Chairperson), Professor, Tongji University


Guoqiang Li

(Vice Chairperson), Professor, Tongji University


Shaozhong Zhu

Associate Professor, Tongji University


Feiming Bao

Lecturer, Tongji University


Xianglin Gu

Associate Professor, Tongji University


Yongfa Li

Lecturer, Tongji University


Aimin Qian

Lecturer, Tongji University


Xiaozu Su

Professor, Tongji University


Maofa Zhu

Lecturer, Tongji University





Eds: Mingshun Wu, Yiliang Qian, Xiaozu Su, Xianglin Gu:
FULL PROCEEDINGS BOOK: Supplementary volume (0.02 GB)

Properties of Masonry Units and Mortar


[001]     Peter Walker:
Characteristics of Pressed Earth Blocks in Compression

[002]     Peter Walker:
Flexural Bond Strength of Pressed Cement Earth Block Masonry

[003]     David M.F. Orr and John Costelloe:
Comparison of the Performance of Cement/Lime Mortars and Mortars Containing Liquid Admixtures

[004]     Y.Z. Totoev and J.M. Nichols:
A Comparative Experimental Study of the Modulus of Elasticity of Bricks and Masonry

[005]     Cenan Ning:
Study on Small Hollow Cinder Concrete Load-Bearing Blocks

[006]     Caspar J.W.P. Groot:
The Characterisation of Brick and Mortar Considering Mortar/Brick Bond

[007]     H.O. Sugo, A.W. Page and S.J. Lawrence:
Characterization and Bond Strengths of Mortars with Clay Masonry Units

[008]     Alberto Drei and Alberto Fontana:
Comparative Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Mortar Joints in Masonry Walls

Properties of Unreinforced Masonry


[009]     Jan Kubica:
Some Remarks on Shear Modules of Unreinforced Clay Brick Masonry Walls

[010]     Jian Yao, Jiaxi Yan and Zhibin Xia:
Study of the Ultimate Load Bearing Capacity of Coal-Ash Air-Entraining Concrete Block Walls Subject to Axial Compression

[011]     Weizhong Yang and Fei Wang:
Ultimate Compression Strength of Masonry Over Bearing Area

[012]     Mu Qiu, Quanfeng Shen, Yongzhou Zhang, Zhaokun Gong, Xianhui Cai, Qianguo Zhang and Degao Chen:
Experimental Study on Compression Capacity of Composite Masonry Wall

[013]     Huaqing Yu, Chuxian Shi, and Zhibo Song:
The Study on Load-Bearing Capacity of Masonry Slender Column Under Bi-Eccentric Compression

[014]     Steve Lawrence, Wimalasena Samarasinghe and Bill Maloukis:
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry in Australia

[015]     Guiqiu Liu, Chuxian Shi and Jinlin Bin:
The Shear Strength of Unreinforced Masonry Wall

[016]     Anu Mathew, B.P. Sinha and R.F. Pedreschi:
Strength and Behavior of Orthotropic and Isotropic Panels under Biaxial Bending

[017]     A. Dukuze and J.L. Dawe:
In-Plane Stiffness of Three-Storey Three-Bay RC Frames with Masonry Infills

[018]     Mohammed Qamaruddin, Abdul Wahid Hago, Salim AI-Oraimi, Saleh Hamoud Al-Hasluni and Salem Juma AI-Waheibi:
Investigation on the Lateral Stiffness of Shear Walls with Openings

[019]     A.N. Fried:
A Review of the Techniques to Determine the Tensile Flexural Strength of Masonry

[020]     Ad Vermeltfoort:
Effects of the Width and Boundary Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Masonry Prisms Under Compression

[021]     P. Schubert:
Strength Properties of Masonry

Properties of Reinforced and Prestressed Masonry


[022]     Zhenwen He:
Introduction to the Design of the Pilot Project of Reinforced Small Block High-Rise Residential Building

[023]     Song Yang:
Internai Force Analysis for the Pilot Project of 15 Storey High-Rise Reinforced Block Residential Building of Panjin State Tax Bureau

[024]     Miha Tomazevic and Marjana Lutman:
Influence of Reinforcement and Block Strength on Seismic Behaviour of Reinforced Masonry Walls

[025]     Mark B. Hogan, Phillip J. Samblanet and Robert D. Thomas:
Research Evaluation of Reinforcing Bar Lap Splices in Concrete Masonry

[026]     M. Dhanasekar, P. Maes and N.G. Shrive:
Response of the Cores of Partially Reinforced Masonry to Cyclic Flexure

[027]     Wankang Luo and Tianxian Wang:
Experimental Research on Aseismic Behaviour of Prestressed Brick Walls

[028]     Wankang Luo, Tianxian Wang, Chunsheng Liao and Xicheng Zhu:
Experimental Research on Aseismic Behaviour of Prestressed Holed Brick Walls

[029]     Daniel Salzmann, Nebojsa Mojsilovic and Peter Marti:
Load Tests on Reinforced Masonry

[030]     Akira Matsumura, Izumi Igarashi and Hiromitsu Takao:
Strength and Behaviour of Lap Splices of Reinforcement in Hollow Unit Masonry

[031]     Qingping Sun, Ruxin Hou and Xianwen Cui:
Studies of Mechanical Properties of Small Hollow Concrete Block Masonry with Reinforced Cores

[032]     Faridah Shafii:
Shear Failure Modes of Prestressed Brickwork Retaining Walls

[033]     J. Gregg Borchelt, P.E. and Jeffrey L. Elder:
Reinforcing Bar Splices in Hollow Brick Masonry

[034]     Dirk R.W. Martens and Hans van den Heuvel:
Prefabricated Veneer Elements in Prestressed Clay Brick Masonry: The Pilot Project

[035]     Nigel G. Shrive and Ezzeldin Y. Sayed-Ahmed:
Post-Tensioning Masonry Diaphragm Walls Using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Tendons

[036]     Ezzeldin Y. Sayed-Ahmed and Nigel G. Shrive:
A New Anchorage System for Post-Tensioning Masonry with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Tendons

Test Methods for Masonry and Its Components


[037]     Wimalasena Samarasinghe, Steve Lawrence and Adrian Page:
Improvements to the Bond Wrench Test

[038]     P. Ronca, C. Tiraboshi and L. Binda:
In-Situ Flatjack Tests Matching New Mechanical Interpretations

[039]     Robert Schmiedmayer:
Nondestructive In Situ Determination of Mortar Load Capacity Using a Modified Schmidt Rebound Hammer

[040]     Robert C. de Vekey and Mauro Sassu:
Comparison of Non-Destructive In-Situ Mechanical Tests on Masonry Mortars: The PNT-G Method and the Helix Method

[041]     Ad Vermeltfoort and Eric Wijen:
ESPI for Research into Mechanical Compressive Behaviour of Masonry

[042]     Daixin Tang and Benquan Zhu:
The Studies on Displacement Controlled Pseudodynamics Test Method of Masonry House

Design for Conventional Masonry Walls


[043]     Quanfeng Shen, Ruifeng Wu, Xiaofeng Xi, Mingyu Xie, Xianhui Cai, Qianguo Zhang and Degao Chen:
Compression Capacity Calculation of Composite Masonry Wall

[044]     Xingwen Liang, Qinglin Wang, Xiaowen Li and Hongbo Sun:
A Method for Calculating Horizontal Bearing Capacity of Continuous Masonry Wall Supported on R.C. Frame

[045]     Hongbo Sun, Xingwen Liang and Yuesheng Tong:
Analysis on Lateral Stiffness of Continuous Masonry Walls Supported on R.C. Frame

[046]     Quanfeng Shen, Kenjiang A, Ruifeng Wu, Xiaofeng Xi, Mingyu Xi e, Qianguo Zhang, Hongwei Xie and Degao Chen:
Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Lateral Bearing Capacity of Composite Walls and Simplified Calculating Formulas

[047]     Ruifeng Wu, Quanfeng Shen, Xianhui Cai, Xiaofeng Xi, Mingyu Xie, Qianguo Zhang, Qinguang Li and Degao Chen:
Research on Bending Capacity of Composite Masonry Wall

[048]     Dahai Liu and Cuiru Yang:
Multistory Buildings in Concentrated Reinforced Masonry

[049]     Xingxiang Wang and Jianxun Ma:
Essentials of High-Rise Building Structure Program System of Reinforced Masonry

Design for Special Structural Forms


[050]     C. Melbourne and H. Tao:
The Behaviour of Open Spandrel Masonry Arch Bridges

[051]     C. Melbourne:
The Collapse Behaviour of a Multi-Span Skewed Brickwork Arch Bridge

[052]     Robert E. Falconer:
Strengthening Masonry Arch Bridges Using Stainless Steel Reinforcement

[053]     Matthew Gilbert:
Gross Displacement Mechanism Analysis of Masonry Bridges and Tunnel Linings

[054]     Khaled M. Sakr and Vemon V. Neis:
The Structural Behaviour of Double Wythe Masonry Walls: Experimental Results and Analysis

[055]     Yiqing Yin:
The Tongue and Groove Dry Masonry

[056]     L. Yang, A.J. Bell and M.E. Phipps:
The Capacities of Short Columns of Geometric Section Carrying Eccentric Axial Load

[057]     Shaoxi Gong, Zhengxiang Wang and Kejian Su:
Finite Element Analyses and Approximate Calculation of Masonry Walls Supported on Concrete Continuous Beams Under Top Uniform Loads

[058]     Baoyin Zhang, Zhonglian Yang, Qiwen Zhang, Yisun Gu and Jasun Yi:
Design and Calculation of Nonbearing Wall Beam

[059]     Qianguo Zhang, Qinggang Li, Hongwei Xue, Degao Chen, Ruiduo Wu, Xiaofeng Xi and Mingyu Jie:
Simplified Design Method of Frame Wall Beam of Composite Wall Buildings Supported on Frame

Aseismic behaviour of masonry


[060]     Chuan Zhang and Shaoliang Bai:
Evaluation of Seismic Behaviour of Multi-Storey Composite Structures in Moderate Seismic Risk Zones

[061]     Miha Tomazevic and Iztok Klemenc:
Seismic Behaviour of Confined Masonry Buildings: an Experimental Study

[062]     Tianxian Wang, Ming Liu and Kuan Li:
Experimental Investigation of Antiseismic Behaviour on Brick Masonry Wall with Multi-Columns

[063]     Zhaohui Xiong and Jingqian Xia:
Seismic Response Study on Masonry Buildings with Lower Stories of R. C. Frame-Shear Wall Structure

[064]     Xueyou Quan, Xiao Hu, Guangyao Fu and Shaoliang Bai:
An Experimental Study on Aseismatic Mechanism of Frame-Supported Wall-beam

[065]     Yan Zhuge and David Thambiratnam:
Cracking and Failure Analysis of Unreinforced Masonry under Earthquake Excitation

[066]     Lizhen Liu, Kenjiro Kajiwara, Koji Yoshimura, Kenji Kikuchi and Tomas P.Sanchez:
Effect of Applied Lateral Forces and Wall Reinforcement on Seismic Behaviour of Confined Concrete Masonry Walls

[067]     Kenji Kikuchi, Koji Yoshimura, Takayoshi Kanema and Akihiro Tanaka:
Effect of Vertical Axial Loads on Seismic Behaviour of Grouted Masonry Walls

[068]     Joshua Kautto, Adrian Page and Peter Kleeman:
The Performance of Australian Masonry Housing under Seismic Loads

[069]     Yonglin Lou:
Research on Sliding Shock Absorbing Method for Seismic Design of Multi-story Brick Building And Its Application

[070]     Hua Yang, Yinsheng Zou and Yurong Guo:
Seismic Response of Masonry with R/C Frame-Wall in the Lower-Two Story under Strong Earthquake

[071]     Yu Zhang, Zhengyun Wang and Weiping Zhang:
Experimental Research on Aseismic Strengthening of Block Masonry Buildings Using Thin Structural Columns

[072]     Xiaojun Xie and Guiqiu Liu:
The Total Bending of Multistory Masonry Buildings and Seismic Design

[073]     Jihang Feng, Bolong Zhu, Dezheng Zhang and Yan Wang:
A Study on Ductility and Energy-Dissipation of Reinforced Concrete-Concrete Masonry Composite Shear Walls

[074]     Houqin Zhai and Benli Gao:
Testing Studies on Mechanical Properties of Medium-Rise and High-Rise Confined Masonry and Analysis of Seismic Behaviour of the Masonry Structures

[075]     Liangrong Yang, Benli Gao and Yi Sun:
Testing Study on Seismic Behaviour of Stone Masonry Wall

[076]     Bolong Zhu, Zhili Hu and Feng Jia:
A Shaking Table Test on Coocrete Block Masonry Building with Opening Span

[077]     Wei Wang, Huanding Wang and Ying Zhang:
Research on Base Isolation Ability of the Steel Tube Concrete Short Column Bearing for Masonry Buildings

Deformation and durability of masonry and its components


[078]     J.P. Forth and J.J. Brooks:
Moisture Transfer Between Mortar and Clay Brick Uliit and Its Effect on Long-Term Deformations of Masonry

[079]     J.P. Forth, P.R. Bingel and J.J. Brooks:
Stresses in Restrained Clay Masonry Panels

[080]     Dai Xin Tang and Zhen Liu:
Assessment of Damage on Masonry Structure

[081]     Wankang Luo:
Analysis and Calculation Method of Cracking Problems in the Gables Constructed of Small Size Concrete Hollow Building Blocks

[082]     Weimin Sun and Fashun Yuan:
Non-Linear Analysis of Loaded Brick Masonry Walls

[083]     Ying Huang and Weimin Sun:
Analysis of the Cracking Rigidity of Eccentric Compression Brick Masonry

[084]     Sheliang Wang and Jianxun Ma:
The Prediction of Service Life of Multi-Storey Masonry Building in Service

[085]     L. Binda, G. Baronio and E.D. Ferrieri:
Durability of Brick Masonry Surface Treatments to Salt Crystallization

[086]     Yangming Xiao:
Temperature Stress Calculation of Brick Masonry Buildings

[087]     G.P.A.G. van Zijl and J.G. Rots:
Understanding Masonry Wall Restrained Shrinkage Behaviour

[088]     Haibo Zhou:
Measures to Control Temperature Cracks in tbe Roof Walls of Concrete Small-Sized Hollow Masonry Unit

[089]     Houqin Zhai and Benli Gao:
The Practical Evaluation Method for Effect of Vibration of Driving Ground on tbe Safety of Building Structures

[090]     H.J.P. Brocken, O.G.G. Adan, W.rook and M.R.A.M. Maassen:
Salinization Effects on the Sorption of Porous Building Materials - Preliminary Sorption Tests

[091]     Wenxiou Lin and Zhizhong Wang:
Determination of Dry Shrinkage ratio and Linear Expansion Coefficient Masonry

Energy, conservation, sound and moisture insulation


[092]     Torj-Ulf Weck:
Low Energy One Family Masonry House

[093]     D.P. Aviram, AN. Fried and J.J. Roberts:
The Thermal Properties of a Partitioned Cavity Wall - A Comparative Experimental Study

[094]     Rossano Albatici, Paolo Baggio and Antonio Frattari:
Case Study on Acoustic Performances of Buildings Made of Brick Block Masonry

[095]     H.J.P. Brocken and L. Pel:
Moisture Transport Over the Brick-Mortar Interface: Water Absorption and Drying

[096]     R.C. de Vekey, A.D. Russell, J. Skandamoorthy and W.A. Ferguson:
Bond and Water Resistance of Masonry Walls

[097]     L. Pel, H. Brocken and K. Kopinga:
Moisture and Salt Transport in Brick: A NMR Study

Discussion of Relevant Themes in Standards


[098]     Yongxin Liu:
Some Problems Appearing in the Practices of Masonry and the Corresponding Measures

[099]     Yaming Xiao:
Discussion on Crack-Control Joints in Masonry Buildings

[100]     Ruifeng Wu, Xiaofeng Xi, Mingyu Xie, Weiping Huang, Qianguo Zhang and Degao Chen:
Stress State Analysis of Framed-Wall-Beam in Composite Masonry Building Supported on Frame at First Story

[101]     Chuxian Shi, Guiqiu Liu and Wenchao Wu:
The Design of Brick Masonry Structure with Concrete Column

[102]     Wangkang Luo, Xicheng Zhu and Chunsheng Liao:
Stress Correlation Combined Shear-Compression of Brick Masonry and the Determining of Friction Coefficient

[103]     Dajun Ding and Kouxia Tai:
Simplifications of Calculating Masonry Members Under Compression

[104]     F. Pires, R. Bairrao, A. Campos-Costa, E. Coelho and J. Rodrigues:
Behaviour of Masonry Infilled R/C Frames under Horizontal Loading. Experimental Results

[105]     Johann Tschositsch:
Behaviour of Plastic Anchors in Masonry

[106]     Norman J. Bright and Clifford A. Fudge:
Considerations for a Masonry Innovation and Research Strategy

[107]     A.J. Valsangkar and J.L. Dawe:
Local Stability Analysis of Soil Reinforced Segmental Retaining Wall Using Limit States

[108]     C.K. Seah, Y. Liu and J.L. Dawe:
Behaviour of Masonry Infilled Walls

[109]     Roger H. Shelton:
A New Australasian Standard on Wall Ties and Masonry Connectors

Standards Introduction and Manufacture Industry


[110]     Zhenfang Yuan and Lianyu Gao:
Brief Introduction to ""Specification for Design of Reinforced Masonry Structures"" DYD-96-1

[111]     G. Simundic and A.W. Page:
Australian Design Manual for Diaphragm Walls

[112]     Koji Yoshimura, Kenji Kikuchi, Jyoji Basaki, Takeshi Okamoto and Shiro Kai:
A New AIJ (Architectural Institute of Japan) Standard for Structural Design of Medium-Rise Grouted Masonry Building Structures

[113]     Richard C. Schumacher:
Development of the Concrete Masonry Industry in the United States from 1900 to 1997

[114]     Benli Gao and Houqin Zhai:
An Introduction to the Technology Code for Construction of Confined Brick Masonry

[115]     P. Schubert:
On the Development of Masonry in Germany

Research on Masonry


[116]     Gabriele Patitz:
Determination of the Mechanical Properties of the Middle Leaf in Historic Multiple Leaf Masonry

[117]     Brian Hobbs, Matthew Gilbert, Tom Molyneaux, Clive Melbourne and Alan Watson:
Simulation of Vehicle Impacts on Masonry Parapets

[118]     Tomoyuki Kajimura, Koji Yoshimura, Kenji Kikuchi and Yoichi Morishita:
Seismic Safety of Existing Masonry Wall Fences and Expected Earthquake Damage During Next Big Earthquakes in Oita and Naha, Japan

[119]     Tomas J. Wijffels, Caspar J.W.P. Groot and Rob P.J. van Hees:
Performance of Restoration Plasters

[120]     Peter Warnecke:
Load Bearing Capacity of Historical Masonry

[121]     Nicola Masini:
Stony Materiais in the Historical Building of Basilicata

[122]     Romualdo Montagna:
Modern Investigation Techniques for the Restoration of Ancient Buildings of Stone or Brick Masonry

[123]     Shenjiang Huang:
Accident Analysis and Strengthening of Brick Silo Structure

[124]     Benli Gao:
Retained Bearing Capacity of Brick Walls under Fire

[125]     Carlo Monti and Raffaella Brumana:
Relational Model of Managing Data Surveys of Complex and Dynamic Architectural Manufacts of Masonry

Theoretical Considerations and Examples


[126]     Antonella Guida:
Methodological Hypothesis for Investigating Intervention: The Problem of the Dampness in the ""Sassi"" of Matera

[127]     Giuseppe Sappa and Maurizio Barbieri:
Petrographical and Technical Characterisation of ""Basaltina"", Effusive Rock Material, Employed in Historical Building in Central Italy

[128]     R.J. White and A.W. Page:
A Mine Subsidence Resistant Masonry Housing System

[129]     P. Munafo, M. D'orazio and A. Rossi:
A Building Technique Used for Stonework Facing in Italy in the Buildings of the Thirties: The Case of Facade Thin Stone Facing of the Town Hall in Corridonia

[130]     Birger Gigla and Fritz Wenzel:
The Repair of Historic Masonry Structures by Injection Anchors

[131]     Carlo Blasi, Salvatore G. Morano and Riaccardo Papi:
Construction Techniques and Restoring Intervention of the Ottoman Buildings and Bridges in Mostar

Masonry design and construction economics


[132]     Linda Brock:
How Thin is Too Thin? ---- Economics and Durability of the New Thin Brick Veneer Systems

[133]     C. Patrick Louvouezo and Linda Brock:
Suitability of Dry-Stack Pressed Earth Masonry for Housing in Third World Cities ---- Case Study of ""1000 Logements"" Project in Brazzavile, Congo

[134]     Liyan Lin and Chunliang Zhang:
An 18-Story Shear Wall Structure Composed of Brick Masonry and R. C. Walls

[135]     Masafumi Inoue, Takeshi Shimizu, Yoshinori Eto, Iwao Kinoshita and Shigeaki Kikuchi:
Structural Design of Wood Brick Wall Houses

[136]     Ruian Li:
The Reform of Traditional Small Hollow Concrete Block Wall and Practice of Small Block in High-Rise Buildings

[137]     Xueyan Li:
Mechanical Properties of Concrete Brick Masonry and Engineering Practice

Numerical and constitutive modeling


[138]     Jan Kubica:
Numerical Modeling of the Vertical Shearing Masonry Walls

[139]     Paulo B. Lourenço and Jan G. Rots:
A Solution for the Macro-Modeling of Masonry Structures

[140]     Matthew Gilbert, Tom Molyneaux and Brian Hobbs:
Numerical Modeling of Unreinforced Masonry Walls Subject to Lateral Impact

[141]     C.K. Seah and J.L. Dawe:
Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Masonry Infilled Frames

[142]     M. Dhanasekar, R.E. Loov, D. McCullough and N.G. Shrive:
Stress-Strain Relations for Hollow Concrete Masonry Under Cyclic Compression

[143]     Vassili V. Toropov, Stephen W. Garrity and Genadiy V. Turovtsev:
A Constitutive Model for Structural Masonry

Late submissions


[144]     Xiao Xiaosong and Lu Xilin:
Study on Behavior Capacity of Concrete Masonry

[145]     Mei Ping and Yang Desan:
Some Comments on Development of High-performance Masonry in China

[146]     Adell Argiles, J.M., Gonzalez Limon, T., Martinez Fernandez, B., Astudillo Pastor, R.:
Horizontal Flexural Bending in Bed Joint Reinforced Clay Masonry Walls in Spain

[147]     Lu Xilin and Xiao Xiaosong:
Progress in Researches and Applications of Earthquake Resistance and Seismic Isolation for Masonry Buildings in China

Supplementary Volume


[148]     Wu Ruifeng:
The State-of-arts of the Masonry Structures in China

[149]     Lu Xilin and Xiao Xiaosong:
Progress in Researches and Applications of Earthquake Resistance Seismic Isolation for Masonry Buildings in China

[150]     Arne Cajdert and Olof Sjostrand:
Loadbearing Masonry Walls Simultaneously Subjected to Vertical and Lateral Loads

[151]     Gianna Riva, Carlo Bettio and Claudio Modena:
The Use of Sonic Wave Technique for Estimating the Efficiency of Masonry Consolidation By Injection

[152]     Alberto Bernardini, Claudio Modena, Giovanni Lazzaro and Maria Rosa Valluzzi:
Cyclic Behaviour and Modelling of Reinforced Masonry Panels