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SAHC 2004

4th International Seminar on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions

Padova, Italy

10-13 November 2004



Organizing Committee:

Paulo B. Lourenço

Universidade do Minho, Portugal


Claudio Modena

Università di Padova, Italy


Pere Roca

Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Spain





ISBN 04 1536 379 9
Eds: Claudio Modena, Paulo B. Lourenço, Pere Roca:

Invited Lectures


[001]     S.K. Agrawal:
Seismic rehabilitation of heritage buildings in India - problems and prospects

[002]     M. Tomazevic:
Research for seismic redesign of historic masonry buildings

[003]     L Binda:
The importance of investigation for the diagnosis of historic buildings: application at different scales (centres and single buildings)

[004]     A. Ceccotti:
Evaluation and analysis of the old timber structures

[005]     P.B. Lourenrço, Â. Melo & M. Carneiro:
Remedial measures for the Cathedral of Porto: a post-modern conservation approach

[006]     P. Roca:
Considerations on the significance of history for the structural analysis of ancient constructions

[007]     C. Modena:
Design approaches of interventions for the safety and conservation of historic buildings

Historical aspects and general methodology


[008]     O. Kirca:
Ancient binding materials, mortars and concrete technology: history and durability aspects

[009]     D. Eksi Akbulut & F. Akoz:
A system approach for examination and determination in historical buildings

[010]     D. Friedman:
Analysis of steel-structure/masonry-wall interaction in historic buildings

[011]     D. Wendland:
Some considerations on the shape of the caps of vaults

[012]     G. Pistone & L. Re:
An inquiry into an unbuilt monument: the mausoleum for the kings of the Italy of Alessandro Antonelli

[013]     G. Riva:
The industrial heritage of the Veneto between memory and project: what technology for conservation and reuse?

[014]     P Berkowski, G. Dmochowski, M. Y Minch & J. Szolomicki:
Technical state and renovation of buildings of Wroclaw's 19th century city centre development

[015]     C. Cennamo, S. D'Angelo & G. Voiello:
Constructive typologies investigation and approach proposals for the valuation of masonry arch state

[016]     G. de Martino & V. Russo:
Structural damage prevention in the historical building site. Theory and praxis in the eighteenth century in Campania

[017]     F. Vegas López-Manzanares & C. Mileto:
Restoration of the bell tower on the Church of Vistabella del Maestrazgo, Castellón (Spain)

[018]     S. Bortolotto, C. Colla, D. Mirandola & A. Sponchioni:
Palazzo Cittadini-Stampa: role of stratigraphy and cinematic analysis in the knowledge of a masonry building

[019]     B.T. de Oliveira, E.C. de Araújo, J.N.S. Villaschi & L. C. Mancini:
An architecture teaching program to rescue the historical town of Ouro Preto, Brazil

[020]     D. Abruzzese, G.E. Cinque & G. Lo Gatto:
Analysis of a Roman masonry flat-slab in Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli

[021]     D.F. Laefer:
Emergence, development, and prevalence of brick nogging in American vernacular structures

[022]     O. Niglio & D. Ulivieri:
Vernacular architecture and ""historical seismography"": an experience research

[023]     Z.H. Tokay:
The traditional twig-knitted wooden construction techniques: a vernacular architecture, ""the Hug house""

Materials and laboratory testing


[024]     O. Kirca & T.K. Erdem:
An experimental study on the construction materials of the Ankara Citadel

[025]     T. Cobancaoglu & U. Tuztasi:
A material that has witnessed the past in Anatolia: adobe

[026]     K.H. Friolo, A.S. Ray, B.H. Stuart & P.S. Thomas:
Investigation of the degradation of sandstones in Sydney's heritage buildings

[027]     l. Wasserman:
Durability aspects of masonry stones used in the southern temple wall in Jerusalem

[028]     A.S. Rush & D.F. Laefer:
Physical and chemical properties of pre-regulated American cements

[029]     J.M. Mechling & R. Elter:
Study of Place Stanislas coloured pavement for its historical restoration

[030]     P. Ronca, A. Franchi & P. Crespi:
Structural failure of historic buildings: masonry fatigue tests for an interpretation model

[031]     L. Cavaleri, A. Failla, L. La Mendola & M. Papia:
Experimental investigation on masonry elements subjected to eccentric axial loads

[032]     L. Malyszko:
In-plane shear and tensile strength tests of small brickwork specimens

[033]     J. Pina-Henriques, P.B. Lourenço, L. Binda & A. Anzani:
Testing and modelling of multiple-leaf masonry walls under shear and compression

Non-destructive testing and inspection techniques


[034]     C. Maierhofer, C. Kopp & A. Wendrich:
On-site investigation techniques for the structural evaluation of historic masonry buildings - a European research project

[035]     V. Bosiljkov, M. Tomazevic, L. Binda, C. Tedeschi, A. Saisi, L. Zanzi, F. da Porto, C. Modena & M.R. Valluzzi:
Combined in-situ tests for the assessment of historic masonry structures in seismic regions

[036]     C. Maierhofer, M. Hamann, C. Hennen, B. Knupfer; M. Marchisio, F. da Porto, L. Binda & L. Zanzi:
Structural evaluation of historic walls and columns in the Altes Museum in Berlin using non-destructive testing methods

[037]     R. Keersmaekers, F. Van Richstal & D. Van Gemert:
Geo-electrical techniques as a non-destructive appliance for restoration purposes

[038]     E. Vintzileou, A. Miltiadou-Fézans, V. Palieraki & N. Delinikolas:
The use of radar techniques and endoscopy in investigating old masonry: the case of Dafni Monastery

[039]     M.R. Migliore & F. Ramundo:
Identification of the mechanical properties of timber structures by combined non-destructive tests

[040]     A.O. Feio, P.B. Lourenço & J.S. Machado:
Compressive behavior and NDT correlations for chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.)

[041]     F. Augelli, C. Colla & R. Mastropirro:
Inspection & NDT to verify structural reliability of historic wooden roofs in the ex-Meroni spinning-mill

[042]     A. Migliacci, P. Ronca, P. Crespi, G. Franchi, F. Bianchi & S. Di Martino:
The historic side-walls of the Navigli canals in Milano: in situ and laboratory tests for the structural conservative project

[043]     M. Sklodowski:
Application of ultrasonic Rayleigh wave to testing of masonry materials

[044]     P. Côte, X. Dérobert, A. Miltiadou-Fézans, N. Delinikolas & N. Minos:
Mosaic-grouting monitoring by ground-penetrating radar

[045]     P. Cikrle, J. Adámek & M. Stehlík:
Ultrasonic testing of properties of mortars

Dynamic behaviour and structural monitoring


[046]     O. Fischer & S. Urushadze:
The influence of bells' movement on the adjacent masonry vibrations

[047]     E. Erdogmus & T.E. Boothby:
Validated structural analysis of Gothic vaulted systems

[048]     S. lvorra, M.J. Palomo, G. Verdí & F Pallarés:
A first approach to study an 18th century belltower

[049]     C. Gentile & A. Saisi:
Dynamic-based F.E. model updating to evaluate damage in masonry towers

[050]     D. Abruzzese & A. Vari:
Seismic resistance of masonry towers

[051]     P. Carusi, V. Sepe & A. Viskovic:
Techniques of structural identification for the monitoring of historical buildings: first experimental results for a masonry tower

[052]     E. Antonacci & G.C. Beolchini:
The dynamic behaviour of the façade of the Basilica S. Maria di Collemaggio

[053]     S.M. Kaya, O. Yuzugullu, M. Erdik & N. Aydinoglu:
Earthquake performance of Suleymaniye Mosque

[054]     M.A. Baptista, P. Mendes, A. Afilhado, L. Agostinho, S. Lagomarsino & L.M. Victor:
Ambient vibration testing at N. Sra. do Carmo Church, preliminary results

[055]     G. Bruschi, G. Nardoni, L. Lanza, F Laudiero, N. Tullini, G. Mezzadri & S. Tralli:
Experimcntal stress analysis of historical forged tie beams of archaeological museum of Spina in Ferrara, Italy

[056]     J.C. Araiza Garaygordóbil:
Dynamic identification and model updating of historical buildings. State-of-the-art review

[057]     A. Del Grosso, A. Torre, G. Corte, G. Brunetti & D. Inaudi:
Structural monitoring in the Villa Reale of Monza (MI), Italy

[058]     G. Chellini, P. Orsini & W. Salvatore:
Dynamic monitoring of an ancient masonry bridge on Carrara marble way

[059]     A. Carpinteri & G. Lacidogna:
Structural integrity assessment of medieval towers

[060]     A. Lionello, I. Cavaggioni, C. Modena, F. Casarin, P.P. Rossi & C. Rossi:
Experimental and numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of St Stefano's bell-tower in Venice

Analytical and numerical approaches


[061]     C. Anselmi, E. De Rosa & L. Fino:
Limit analysis of masonry structures

[062]     J.A. Ochsendorf:
A displacement-based approach for the safety assessment of masonry structures

[063]     A. De Luca, E. Mele, A. Romano & A. Giordano:
A simplified formula for the evaluation of horizontal capacity of masonry portal frames

[064]     E.A.W. Maunder:
Staircases as cantilevers or arches? - a question for limit analysis

[065]     U. Ianniruberto & Z. Rinaldi:
Systems of arches and columns strengthened with FRP at the extrados

[066]     U. Ianniruberto & Z. Rinaldi:
Ultimate behavior of masonry arches reinforced with FRP at the intrados: comparison between analytical and numerical models

[067]     E. Garavaglia, A. Anzani & L. Binda:
A probabilistic model for the assessment of historic buildings under permanent loading

[068]     G. Mirabella Roberti, L. Donati & A. Fontana:
Out-of-plane behaviour of multiple-leaf stone masonry

[069]     P.B. Cachim & A.L. Velosa:
Numerical modelling of a small mortar dome towards the restoration of a cruzeiro in Portugal

[070]     R. Hayen, K. Van Balen & D. Van Gemert:
The mechanical behaviour of mortars in triaxial compression

[071]     C. Calderini & S. Lagomarsino:
The effect of the masonry pattern on the global behaviour of vaults

[072]     P. D'Asdia, A. Viskovic & C Brusaporci:
Non linear step by step analysis for masonry structures using changing shape finite elements - new developments and implementations

[073]     L.A. Van Gulick:
Construction sequence in the finite element analysis of Romanesque churches

[074]     D. Theodossopoulos:
Structural scheme of the Cathedral of Burgos

[075]     A. Agüero & F.J. Pallarés:
Comparison of the masonry structures analysis using the co-rotational formulation and a simplified proposal

[076]     I.H.P Mamaghani:
Analysis of masonry structures by discrete finite element method

[077]     C.A. Safta:
Why does the Endless Column seem everlasting?

[078]     M. Massanas, P. Roca, M. Cervera & G. Arun:
Structural analysis of Kuçuk Ayasofya Mosque in Istanbul

[079]     J.G. Rots & S. lnvernizzi:
Prevision of settlement-induced cracking in historical building masonry façades

[080]     L. Pani, B. De Nicolo & Z. Odoni:
Cracking simulation in a plain structure using the finite element method

Consolidation and strengthening techniques


[081]     E.E. Toumbakari, D. Van Gemert, T.P Tassios & E. Vintzileou:
Experimental investigation and analytical modeling of the effect of injection grouts on the structural behaviour of three-leaf masonry walls

[082]     S. Ignoul, F. Van Rickstal & D. Van Gemert:
Application of mineral grouts. Case study and impact on structural behaviour: Church of St. Catharina at Duisburg (B)

[083]     R. Capozucca:
Analysis of historic masonry shear walls strengthened by composite material

[084]     R.A. Sofronie:
Two techniques for repair and strengthening masonry constructions

[085]     A. Gubana & E. Giuriani:
Structural restoration of vaults with extrados ties

[086]     V. Stoll & W. Jaeger:
The main cupola of the Dresden Frauenkirche

[087]     T. Jespersen:
The medieval castle Spottrup. Stabilization of the south wing

[088]     A. Lodigiani & G. Macchi:
Technologies for the prestressing rings of the Leaning Tower of Pisa

[089]     A. Lionello, I. Cavaggioni, P.P. Rossi & C. Rossi:
A quick and low-cost method for strengthening high buildings: the case of St. Stefano's bell-tower in Venice

[090]     A. Raffagli:
Intervention methodology on historical structures subject to distortions

[091]     M.Y. Minch, J. Szolomicki, P. Berkowski & G. Dmochowski:
Strengthening of historical construction by using steel bracing inserted into brick walls

[092]     A. Mandara & G. Palumbo:
Confined masonry members: a method for predicting compressive behaviour up to failure

[093]     P. Mazzalai, S. Torresani, L. Silvestri & L. Springhetti:
Castel Belasi's special underpinning and reinforcement project

[094]     E.E. Crocker:
Non-invasive underpinning technologies in historic settings

[095]     N.G. Shrive, M.M. Reda Taha & M.J. Masia:
Restoration and strengthening with fibre reinforced polymers: issues to consider

[096]     A. Saisi, L. Binda, M.R. Valluzzi & C. Modena:
Creep behavior of brick masonry panels strengthened by the bed joints reinforcemcnt technique using CFRP thin strips

[097]     L. De Lorenzis, N. Galati & L. Ombres:
In-plane shear strengthening of natural masonry walls with NSM CFRP strips and FRCM overlay

[098]     A. Failla, A. Cottone & G. Giambanco:
Numerical modeling of masonry structures reinforced by FRP plate/sheets

[099]     M. Accardi & L. La Mendola:
Stress transfer at the interface of bonded joints between FRP and calcarenite natural stone

[100]     M.A. Aiello & M.S. Sciolti:
Influence of environmental agents on bond between FRP reinforcement and calcarenite ashlars

[101]     E. Quagliarini, M. D'Orazio & A. Stazi:
Durability assessment of FRP wraps applied on high artistic ""plaster and reeds"" vaults

[102]     V. Zerbo, A. Di Tommaso & L. Ceriolo:
FRP strengthening systems for metallic structures: a state of the art

Historical timber and metal structures


[103]     F.M. Mazzolani, B. Calderoni, G. De Matteis & C. Giubileo:
Experimental analysis of ancient wooden beams for flexural and shear failure

[104]     C. Modena, M.R. Valluzzi, E. Garbin & F. da Porto:
A strengthening technique for timber floors using traditional materials

[105]     F.M. Mazzolani, B. Calderoni, G. De Matteis & C. Giubileo:
Experimental analysis of ancient chestnut beams by small specimens

[106]     C. Thelin & K. G. Olsson:
Investigating causes of damages to historical timber structures by use of FEM

[107]     F.M. Mazzolani, B. Faggiano & A. Marzo:
Methodology for the analysis of complex historical wooden structures: a study case

[108]     M.P. Piazza, M.R. Riggio & G.B. Brentari:
Strengthening and control methods for old timber trusses: the queen-post truss of the Trento theatre

[109]     C. Menichelli, C. Modena, M.R. Valluzzi, E. Garbin & F. da Porto:
Timber roof structures of the "Arsenale" of Venice

[110]     L. Hahmann:
The furnace hall in Peitz - analyzing a 200-year old curved plank roof

[111]     D.A. Gasparini, J. Bruckner & F. da Porto:
Viscoelastic analyses of a prestressed Howe Bridge

[112]     C. Ceraldi & E. Russo Ermolli:
Ancient timber bridges: numerical modelling of connections behavior

[113]     F. Lanza, A. Mattarucco & F. da Porto:
Long-term creep in wooden-iron bridges: a comparative study of different truss types

[114]     A. Brencich & L. Gambarotta:
Structural analysis and rehabilitation of a nailed railway bridge in Genoa

[115]     M. Ferraioli, P. Malangone, M. Rauci & A. Zambrano:
Historical railway bridges: tests and numerical analysis

[116]     M. Sassu:
Restoration of the historical steel vault of the Goldoni Theatre in Livorno

[117]     R. Landolfo, M. Manganiello & F. Portioli:
Numerical analysis of the steel roofing structure of the Umberto I Gallery in Naples

Seismic analysis and vulnerability assessment


[118]     A. Anzani, A. Baila, D. Penazzi & L. Binda:
Vulnerability study in seismic areas: the role of on-site and archives investigation

[119]     L. Binda, G. Cardani, A. Saisi, C. Modena, M.R. Valluzzi & L. Marchetti:
Guidelines for restoration and improvement of historical centers in seismic regions: the Umbria experience

[120]     D. D 'Ayala & A. Kansal:
An analysis of the seismic vulnerability of the architectural heritage in Bhuj, Gujarat, India

[121]     L.F. Restrepo-Vélez & G. Magenes:
Experimental testing in support of a mechanics-based procedure for the seismic risk evaluation of unreinforced masonry buildings

[122]     S. Lagomarsino, S. Podestà, S. Resemini, E. Curti & S. Parodi:
Mechanical models for the seismic vulnerability assessment of churches

[123]     P.N. Maskey & T.K. Datta:
Seismic risk of monumental structures of Kathmandu Valley

[124]     D. D 'Ayala & D. Yeomans:
Assessing the seismic vulnerability of late Ottoman buildings in Istanbul

[125]     R. Meli & F. Peña:
On elastic models for evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of masonry churches

[126]     G. Augusti, M. Ciampoli & E. Canalella:
Probability of collapse of monumental buildings under seismic loads

[127]     G. de Felice:
Out-of-plane fragility of historic masonry walls

[128]     F.J. Pallarés, A. Agüero, M. Martín & S. Ivorra:
Failure mode in an industrial brickwork chimney using different criteria

[129]     A. Penna, S. Cattari, A. Galasco & S. Lagomarsino:
Seismic assessment of masonry structures by non-linear macro-element analysis

[130]     F. Peña:
Correlation between tensile strength and the collapse mechanism of brick masonry constructions

[131]     G.C. Marano & R. Greco:
Stochastic analysis of hysteretic degrading systems subject to earthquakes

Seismic strengthening and innovative systems


[132]     V. Sendova & P. Gavrilovic:
Implementation of a methodology using ""ties and injection"" developed for repair and strengthening of historic monuments

[133]     J.M. Barrow, E.L. Tolles & S.J. Farneth:
Stabilization of the landmark Las Flores adobe: a case study of restrained seismic retrofit

[134]     G. Spina, F. Ramundo & A. Mandara:
Masonry strengthening by metal tie-bars, a case study

[135]     A. Lockrem, M. Schuller & R. Locke:
Modifying building response using energy absorbing diaphragm-to-wall connectors

[136]     M. Corradi & V. Filemio:
Some considerations of structural restoration of S. Giacomo church's in Gavi (Alessandria)

[137]     M.G. Castellano & S. Infanti:
Seismic protection of monuments by shape memory alloy devices and shock transmitters

[138]     M. Indirli, P. Clemente, B. Spadoni, R. Cami, E. Speranza, M. Mucciarella & F. Pistola:
Seismic protection of historical centers using innovative techniques, with focus on San Giuliano di Puglia after the 2002 Molise earthquake

[139]     F.M. Mazzolani & A. Mandara:
Seismic upgrading of an old industrial masonry building by dissipative steel roofing

[140]     P. Gavrilovic, V. Sendova & S.J. Kelley:
Seismic isolation: a new approach to earthquake protection of historic monuments

Case studies


[141]     W. Jaeger & E. Al-Khateeb:
Masonry structure in the Crusader's Castles - Syria

[142]     M. Petrescu-Comnene & S.R. Higgins:
Library of Parliament of Canada - conservation, rehabilitation, upgrade case study presentation

[143]     A. Miltiadou-Fézans, E. Vintzileou, N. Delinikolas, E. Zaroyianni & E. Chorafa:
Pathology of the Dafni Monastery: survey, monitoring of cracks, interpretation and numerical verification

[144]     B. Belletti, E. Coisson, C. Ferrari & S. Pedroni:
The role of survey for a correct FE analysis: the case of the Monte Oliveto Maggiore church

[145]     E. Lokosek & H. Podnar:
Researching the bearing system's capacity as an argument in solving a dilemma in the interpretation of the origin and development of architectural complex of the St. Donatus' church in Zadar

[146]     P.A. Jaquin, C.E. Augarde & C.M. Gerrard:
Analysis ofTapial structures for modern use and conservation

[147]     A. Lionello, I. Cavaggioni, P.P. Rossi, C. Rossi, C. Modena, F. Casarin, G. Marchi, G. Gottardi & A. Ragazzini:
Preliminary investigation and monitoring for the design of a strengthening intervention on the Frari basilica, Venice

[148]     J.A. Matteo:
Fallingwater - structural intervention, in time

[149]     T. Jespersen:
The Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. The Norwegian National Symbol. Stabilization of the Choir

[150]     K. Brosens, S. Ignoul, D. Van Gemert, K. Van Balen, L. Schueremans & P. Stevens:
Structural restoration of a farm wing of the Park Abbey at Heverlee, Belgium

[151]     R. Ciesielski, H. Ciurej & A. Kwiecien:
Application of CFRP laminates as strengthening of cracked brick arches

[152]     J. Hirs, M. Bajer, J. Kala & K. Ksandr:
Restoring the greenhouse at Lednice chateau

[153]     G. Macchi:
Saving minarets at risk in Afghanistan

[154]     C. González-Longo & D. Theodossopoulos:
The vaulting structure of the Temple of Venus and Rome at the Roman Forum

[155]     G. Valletta, R. Chaer, S. Nenecioni, C. Pecora & L. Nisizaki:
Structural analysis and project of reconsolidation of Italian Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay

[156]     I. Bucur-Horváth, M. Miklós & I. Popa:
Theoretical and experimental studies for strengthening Bohemian brick vaults

[157]     A.G. Palacio:
Structural studies developed on ""The Miracles Roman Aqueduct"" in Merida (Spain)

[158]     A.T. Vermeltfoort:
Preservation and stability of industrial masonry chimneys

[159]     G. Boccanegra, S. Dobricic, A. Marchi & F. Amendolagine:
A new load bearing structure for the conservation of the roofs of the Molino Stucky in Venice (Italy)